Bihar GK in English

Transport in Bihar

Modes of Transport in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

The state of Bihar has different modes of the transport such as road transport, railways, waterways and airways. These modes of transport are discussed below

Rail Transport in Bihar

➤ The development of railways in Bihar was started in the year 1860. A rail route was developed along the Ganga river upto Kolkata in the year 1860-62 by the East India Company.

➤ This route connected Rajmahal, Bhagalpur, Munger, Patna, Arrah, Buxar and Mughalsarai.

➤ Hawrah-Mughalsarai (presently Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay) Railway line is the first railway line of Bihar.

➤ As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the total length of rail route is 3,731 km and total rail track in the state is 6,870 km which is 5.6% of the national average.

➤ The density of rail route in Bihar is 39.6 km per 1,000 sq km of area which is higher than the national average i.e. 20.3 km.

➤ In terms of Rail Route Per Lakh Populations, Bihar ranks at bottom i.e. 4.9 km as compared to the neighbouring state like Jharkhand which is at the top (11.7 km).

➤ Bihar has 8th rank in India in terms of rail transport. India’s second longest railway bridge i.e. Nehru Setu or Dehri-on-Son (3,059 m) is located in Bihar which was constructed across the Sone river.

➤ Asia’s biggest and oldest locomotive workshop is located at Jamalpur in Munger. It was set-up on 8th February, 1862. In the year 1899, Jamalpur locomotive workshop produced its first locomotive which was named as CA – 764 Lady Curzon. ➤ Bihar has many factories associated with railways like Baghi Complex in Dalmianagar, Diesel Electric Locomotive Factory in Marhaura (Saran), Bela Rail Wheel Plant (Saran) and Electric Locomotive Factory in Madhepura.

Railway Zones

The East-Central Railway Zone is the major railway zone in Bihar. It was established in 1996 which is functional since 2002. Its headquarters is located at Hajipur (Vaishali district).

There are five railway divisions under this railway zone. These are:

  1. Danapur Railway Division
  2. Sonpur Railway Division
  3. Samastipur Railway Division
  4. Mugalsarai Railway Division
  5. Dhanbad Railway Division

Katihar Railway Division is under North-Eastern Frontier railway, which have its headquarters in Guwahati (Assam)

Railway Division

Bihar has four railway divisions which are discussed below:

Danapur Railway Division

➤ This railway division was established in the year 1925. Till 1952, Danapur Division was a part of East Indian Railway Company then it came into the control of East Railway Kolkata from 1952 to 2002.

➤ Since 1st October, 2002, it has been working under East-Central Railway Zone.

The main railway stations under this railway division are Arrah, Patna and Mokama.

Sonpur Railway Division

➤ This railway division was established on 21st October, 1970 under the North Eastern Railway (NER) Zone and East-Central Railway Zone.

➤ Since 8th September, 1996, this division has been working under East-Central Railway Zone of Hajipur. The categori A-1 and categori A railway stations under the Sonpur Railway Division are Hajipur, Barauni, Muzaffarpur and Khagaria.

Samastipur Railway Division

This division was set-up in the year 1969. The headquarters of this division is located at Samastipur. The major railway stations under this railway division are Samastipur,Darbhanga,Madhubani and Saharsa.

Katihar Railway Division

This division was set up on 15th January, 1958. It is under the North-Eastern Frontier Railway Zone. The railway station under this railway division are Katihar, Kishanganj, Purnea and so on.

Indian Railway Zones Passing through Bihar

Zone

Headquarters

East-Central Railway

Hajipur

Eastern Railway

Kolkata

North-Eastern Frontier Railway

Guwahati

North-Eastern Railway

Gorakhpur

South-Eastern Railway

Kolkata

Patna Metro Rail Project

➤ This rapid transit system would be owned and operated by the state run Patna Metro Rail Corporation.

➤ On 25th September, 2018 the Bihar Cabinet has approved the Constitution of Patna Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.

➤ On 20th November, the Central Government also approved this project.

➤ On 17th February, 2019 Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone for Patna’s first Metro Rail Corridor.

➤ It is expected that this metro rail would be run on two corridors by 2024.

Road Transport in Bihar

➤ Road network provides the arterial network to facilitate trade, transport, social integration and economic development. Road transport has many advantages over other means of transport because of its easy accessibility, flexibility of operations, door-to-door service, last mile connectivity and reliability. As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the total length of road network in Bihar is 2,06,484 km.

➤ As per Economic Survey 2018-19, Bihar has third highest road network density i.e. 219 km per 100 sq km, after Kerala (517 km) and West Bengal (357 km). It is much above the national average road network density i.e. 143 km.

➤ The road length per lakh of population in Bihar is 125.9 km as compared to national average of 387.6.

The road transport in Bihar is divided into four categories such as :

(i) National Highways (NH)

➤ As per National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), there are 42 National Highways in Bihar which have a total length of 5030.6 km (As per the November 2018 data).

➤ National Highways are major roads of a country which make possible the inter-state movements of goods and passengers. They traverse the length and width of the country, connecting the national and state capitals, major parts and rail junctions and also link up with border roads and foreign highways.

➤ The construction and maintenance of the NH is the sole responsibility of the Central Government.

➤ The longest National Highway in Bihar is NH-31, which is about 415 km long whereas, NH-727 A is the shortest NH which is only about 4.5 km long.

➤ The Golden Quadrilateral Project, which connects 4 metropolitan cities of India, include NH-19 in this project to connect Delhi to Kolkata. Almost all of 1269.7 km (206 km in Bihar) stretch of NH-19 has been selected as a part of the Golden Quadrilateral. NH-19 (previously NH-2) is the medieval Grand Trunk Road (GT Road) which was constructed by Sher Shah Suri during 16th century.

NH-27 and NH-31, which traverse in Bihar, are a part of East-West corridor.

Some National Highways of Bihar

NH No.

Route

Length (km.) in Bihar

19

Uttar Pradesh, Mohania, Aurangabad, Dobhi-Jharkhand

206

22

Sonbarsa (Indo/Nepal Border), Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, Hajipur, Patna, Punpun, Gaya, Bodh Gaya, Dobhi – Jharkhand.

282.3

31

The highway starting from its junction with NH-27 near Unnao connecting Lalganj, Raebareli, Salon, Pratapgarh, Machhlishahr, Jaunpur, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Ballia in the State of Uttar Pradesh, Chhapra, Hajipur, Bakhtiyarpur, Mokama, Begusarai, Khagaria, Bihpur, Kora, Katihar in the State of Bihar, Harishchanderpur and terminating at its junction with NH-12 near Pandua in the State of West Bengal.

415

120

Junction with NH-20 near Bihar Sharif connecting Nalanda, Rajgir, Hisua, Gaya, Daudnagar, Nasrignaj, Karakat, Dawath, Nawanagar, and terminating at its junction with NH-922 near Dumraon

244

122A

Vishwanathpur Chowk on NH-22 – Koili, a- Nanpur on NH-527C

31.8

131

The highway starting from its junction with NH-31 near Bihpur connecting Kishanganj, Madhepura and terminating at Birpur in the State of Bihar near Indo/Nepal Border.

136

133

The highway starting from its junction with NH-33 in the State of Bihar connecting Godda and terminating on NH-114A in the State of Jharkhand.

10.9

139

The highway starting from its junction with NH-39 near Rajhara connecting Chhatarpur, Hariharganj in the State of Jharkhand, Aurangabad, Daudnagar, Arwal, Naubatpur and terminating at its junction with NH-31 near Patna in the State of Bihar.

153.6

227

The highway starting from its junction with NH-27 near Chakia connecting Narhar, Pakri Bridge, Madhuban, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Harlakhi, Umgaon, Jaynagar, Laukaha, Laukahi and terminating at its junction with NH-27 near Narahia in the State of Bihar.

215.0

227A

Uttar Pradesh/Bihar Border – Siwan – Mashrakh – Chakia

137

231

The highway starting from its junction with NH-31 near Maheshkhant in the State of Bihar connecting Sonbarsa Simri Bakhtiyarpur Saharsa, Madhepura, Sarsi, Purnea and terminating at its junction with NH-31 near Kora in the State of Bihar.

209

319

Junction with NH-19 near Mohania – Dinara, Charpokhari, junction with NH-922 near Arrah

125

327

The highway starting from Galgalia on NH-327 Thakurganj, Raniganj, Bahadurganj, Araria, Bhargama, Tribeniganj, Pipra, Supaul, (Bariyahi Bazar) Bangaon and terminating at Maheshi (Tarapeeth) in the state of Bihar.

233.5

331

The highway starting from its junction with NH-31 near Chhapra connecting Baniapur and terminating at its junction with NH-27 near Muhammadpur in the State of Bihar.

65

333

The highway starting from Bariyarpur on NH-33 connecting Kharagpur, Laxmipur, Jamui, Chakai in the State of Bihar-Jharkhand.

141.2

527

The highway starting from its junction with NH-27 near Forbesganj and terminating at Jogbani in the State of Bihar.

14

527C

The highway starting from Majhauli on NH-27 connecting Katra, Jajuar, Pupri and terminating at Charout on NH-227 in the state of Bihar.

64.2

531

The highway starting from its junction with NH-31 near Chhapra, Siwan and terminating at its junction with NH-27 near Gopalganj in the State of Bihar.

95.0

722

The highway starting from its junction with NH-22 near Muzaffarpur connecting Rewaghat and terminating at its junction with NH-31 near Chhapra in the State of Bihar.

75

727

The highway starting from its junction with NH-27 near Kushinagar in the State of Uttar Pradesh connecting Chhitanuni Rail-cum-Road Bridge, Bagaha, Lauriya, Bettiah and terminating at its junction with NH-527 D near Chapwa in the State of Bihar.

112

727A

Uttar Pradesh and terminating at its junction with NH-227A near Mairwa

4.5

922

The highway starting from its junction with NH-22 near Patna connecting Ara, Bhojpur and terminating near Buxar in the State of Bihar.

138

*Source: http://www.nhai.roadnetwork

(ii) State Highways (SH)

➤ These roads in a state are used for inter-district movements. As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the total length of State Highways in Bihar is 4006 km.

➤ Out of these around 65.8% of State Highways are double-lane roads, 14.3% intermediate lane roads and 19.4% are single lane roads. Around 0.6% of State Highways are multiple-lane roads.

➤ Patna is the first in terms of longest total road length in Bihar which is followed by Gaya, Supaul, Nalanda and Muzaffarpur whereas, Sheohar, Munger, Sheikhpura and Lakhisarai districts have shortest road length in the state.

Major State Highways in Bihar

State Highways No.

Route

Passes through-district(s)

Length (in Km)

SH 1

Sadikpur – Pavera – Masaurhi

Patna

38.22

SH 1

Sadikpur – Pavera – Masaurhi

Patna

38.22

SH 18

Jamui – Bypass Road

Jamui

1

SH 18

Jamui – Bypass Road

Jamui

1

SH 2

Bihta – Bikram – Paliganj – Arwal

Patna

37.70

SH 2

Bihta – Bikram – Paliganj – Arwal

Patna

37.70

SH 52

Madhubani – Saurath – Pokhreni road

Madhubani

2

SH 52

Madhubani – Saurath – Pokhreni road

Madhubani

2

SH 6

Bihar Sharif – Barbigha – Sheikhpura – Sikandra – Jamui – Kharagpur Road

Jamui, Sheikhpura, Lakhisarai

95

SH 6

Bihar Sharif – Barbigha – Sheikhpura – Sikandra – Jamui – Kharagpur Road

Jamui, Sheikhpura, Lakhisarai

95

SH 69

Dumaria – Imamganj – Sherghati – Karmain – Mathurapur – Guraru – Ahiapur – Tekari – Mau – Kurtha – Kinjar – Paliganj – Rani Talab

Gaya, Patna

153

SH 69

Dumaria – Imamganj – Sherghati – Karmain – Mathurapur – Guraru – Ahiapur – Tekari – Mau – Kurtha – Kinjar – Paliganj – Rani Talab

Gaya, Patna

153

SH 76

Araria – Raniganj – Jadia – Triveniganj – Pipra – Supaul – Vishnupur – Bhaptiyahi

Araria, Supaul

121

SH 76

Araria – Raniganj – Jadia – Triveniganj – Pipra – Supaul – Vishnupur – Bhaptiyahi

Araria, Supaul

121

(iii) Major District Roads (MDR)

➤ These are the branch roads of the State and National Highways which serve as the main roads for intra-district movements. These connect the areas of production and marketing to one another and to the NH and SH.

➤ As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the total major District Roads in Bihar is around 12356.85 km long. Out of the total MDRs, 4030 km roads have been converted into intermediate lane roads and 1760 km of MDR into double or multiple lanes roads.

(iv) Rural Roads

➤ These are feeder roads which provide inter-village movements. These roads pass through rural areas connecting the village to one another and to the nearest road of higher category i.e. district roads, SHs and NHs.

➤ In order to connect every unconnected village in Bihar, the State Government has included Ghar Tak PakkiGali-Naliyaan Scheme under ‘Saat Nischaya’ of the state.

➤ As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the State Government has constructed around 73782.11 km rural roads in Bihar, (as on September, 2018).

Main Organisations Related Road Transport

Bihar State Road Development Corporation Limited (BSRDCL)

It was established in 2009 under the Company Act, 1956 with the objective of construction, repair and maintenance of road,bridge, tunnel and other physical infrastructure within or outside the state. The BSRDCL has taken up 14 SH projects for double-lanning and a 6-lane bridge over river Ganga under ADB supported project.

Bihar Rajya Pul Nirman Nigam Limited (BRPNNL)

➤ BRPNNL is functioning under the Road Constrution Department. It was established on 11th June, 1975.

➤ It played a major role in the construction of rail-cum-road bridge near Patna between Digha and Sonepur across Ganga river.

Major Road Development Schemes of Bihar

Mukhyamantri Setu Nirman Yojana

➤ ‘Mukhyamantri Setu Nirman Yojana’ of the State Government envisages providing all weather connectivity to remote rural areas. Under this, the District Administration has been given autonomy for construction of bridges costing upto

` 25 lakh and those costing more than ` 25 lakh being undertaken by Bihar Rajya Pul Nirman Nigam Limited.

Road Development Vision, 2020

➤ The Bihar Government has approved the Road Development Vision, 2020 on 3rd February, 2017 for expansion of road infrastructure and connectivity in Bihar.

➤ Under this scheme, all State Highways would be widened to minimum of two lanes, while all long-distance district roads would have a minimum width of 5.5 m of its intermediate lane.

The major works planned under this scheme during 2016-20 are:

Major Bridge Projects

➤ 4-lane bridge on river Ganga connecting Arrah and Chhapra.

➤ Rail-cum-road bridge over river Ganga between Digha and Sonpur.

➤ Bishunpur bridge between Bettiah and Gopalganj over river Gandak.

➤ Bridge between Gandaul and Biraul, bridge between Gaya and Manpur on river Phalgu.

Major Road Projects

➤ Noorsari-Silao Road Anisabad-Aurangabad-Hariharganj Road (NH 98).

➤ Dehri-Nasariganj-Bihramganj-Dinera Road (SH 15), Darbhanga-Samastipur Road (SH 50).

➤ Dighwara-Bhelodi-Amnour-Tarniya-Panapur to Semari Mandir (SH 104).

Indo-Nepal Border Road Project

➤ It is a joint venture of Central and State Government. As Bihar shares the international border with Nepal, the State and Central Government are constructing State Highways around 552 km long with two lanes in the border areas.

➤ The aim of this project is to enable proper communication for local people and patrolling of the porous border by Border Security Force (BSF).

➤ The Central and the State Government are sharing 33.67% and 66.33% of the total cost of this project, respectively.

➤ As the proposed roads pass through a vast area of agriculture zone, these roads will also benefit the rural economy, improving its connectivity to nearest urban centres for employment, marketing of produce.

➤ This road begins from border line of Uttar Pradesh (Gibarahia-Madanpur) and ends atWest Bengal (Gagalia). In between this road navigates parallel to international border of Nepal through 7 districts of Bihar such asWest Champaran, East Champaran, Sitamarhi,Madhubani, Supaul, Araria and Kishanganj.

Inter-State Transport

➤ For socio-cultural and economic development, an advanced and developed transport system connects backward regions with towns and markets within the state as well as other states.

➤ In order to provide convenience to the passengers and facilitate inter-state road transportation, the Bihar State Government has made several agreements with nearby states. e.g. with Jharkhand (200 routes), West Bengal (45 routes), Uttar Pradesh (34 routes), Chhattisgarh (28 routes) and Odisha (07 routes).

Bihar State Road Transport Corporation (BSRTC)

BSRTC was established in 1959, under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950.

It works under the Government of Bihar. Its headquarter is located at Patna. It was set-up to strengthen the public transportation system in Bihar.

As per Economic Survey 2018-19. There are 410 buses are plying in rural and urban areas. In addition, 231 buses are running under Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode.The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs,Government of India, has given Commendable Initiative Award to the BSRTC for ‘Best City Bus Services’ under the category of ‘From Zero to Century Up’.

The Corporation had provided 120 free bus services to the 2.32 lakh devotees on the celebration of 350th Birth Anniversary of Sri Guru Govind Singh Ji Maharaj.

BSRTC had also provided 220 buses to freedom fighters and other participants to attend the centenary celebration of Champaran Satyagraha.

Air Transport in Bihar

➤ It is the fastest but expensive mode of transport. Air Service was started in Bihar in 1860.

➤ Jai Prakash Narayan International Airport is located at Patna. This airport provides air services to Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Pune, Raipur, Chennai, Jaipur, Mumbai, Chandigarh, Kathmandu, Delhi and Kolkata.

➤ Gaya International Airport is situated at Bodhgaya in Bihar. It provides air services for Sri Lanka and Bangkok. This airport got the status of International Airport on 12th November, 2002 with the arrival of plane of Sri Lanka Airlines.

➤ Other airports are located in Raxaul, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Darbhanga, Araria, Purnea and Bihta. Bihta Air Force Station is located in Bihta (Patna).

Important Airports of Bihar

Name

Place

Type

Chunapur Airport

Purnea

Defence

Darbhanga Airport

Darbhanga

Defence

Gaya International Airport

Gaya

International

Jai Prakash Narayan International Airport

Patna

International

Jogabani Airport

Jogabani (Araria)

Domestic

Marafari Airport

Bhagalpur

Domestic

Muzaffarpur Airport

Muzaffarpur

Domestic

Raxaul Airport

Raxaul

Domestic

Indicators

District Headquarters

Water Transport in Bihar

➤ Waterways provide a cheap and environment friendly mode of transport which is suitable for bulky goods. It is done through seas and navigable rivers and canals.

➤ National Waterway No.-1 passes through Bihar which is stretched from Allahabad to Haldia. It was constructed in the year 1986. It is about 1620 km long. Its permanent terminal is located in Patna and a floating terminal is in Bhagalpur. A regional office has also been set up in Gay Ghat in Patna.

➤ A Cargo complex has also been set-up on the bank of Ganga river near Gulabighat.

➤ Thus, around 2,500 km distance has become navigable through Ganga river from Kolkata-Farakka to Patna-Allahabad.

➤ The inter-state water transport was started by the Ministry of Shipping in Patna.

➤ The Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghra, Son, etc are the navigable rivers in Bihar.

➤ There are two waterways which is operated by the State Government which are Barari Ghat-Mahadevpur Ghat (provides railway steamer service for Bhagalpur and Mokama – Barauni (provides steamer service).

➤ Arrah canal, which is constructed from Western Son canal in South Bihar is navigable for small and medium sized boats. Around 83 km length of this canal is navigable for steamers. To make this canal navigable throughout the year, Anicut Barrage has been constructed near Dehri under Sone Barrage Project.

➤ To stop boating accidents, Shipping Rules, 2011 have been made by the government. Under these rules, registration of all ships and steamers are compulsory in the State of Bihar.

Note A Ropeway has been constructed only in Rajgir in Bihar state.

National Waterways in Bihar

National Waterways

River

Length (in km)

State

NW – 40

Ghaghara

340

Bihar and UP

NW – 54

Karmnasha

86

UP and Bihar

NW – 58

Kushi

236

Bihar

NW – 81

Punpun

35

Bihar

NW – 94

Son

160

Bihar

NW- 1

Ganga

1,620

UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal

NW- 37

Gandak

300

Bihar and UP

Important Rail/Road Bridges over River in Bihar

Bridge

River (Place)

Railway/Roadway

Abdul Bari Bridge

Son (Koilwar, Bhojpur)

Rail, Road

Digha-Sonpur Rail Road Bridge (JP Setu)

Ganga (Patna-Sonpur)

Rail, Road

Gandak Rail Road Bridge

Sonpur

Rail, Road

Ganga Rail-Road Bridge

Ganga (Patna, Sonpur)

Rail, Road

Mahatma Gandhi Setu

Ganga (Patna)

Roadway

Nehru Setu

Son (Dehri-on-Son)

Rail, Road

Rajendra Setu

Ganga (Mokama)

Rail, Road

Vikramshila Setu

Ganga (Bhagalpur)

Road

 

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