India, one of the major fish producing nations in the world stands 2nd in aquaculture production in the world. The Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairying are implementing various schemes/programs for the development of the fisheries sector with a view towards enhancement of fish production.
The details of the schemes and facilities provided to small and medium farmers for pisciculture are as below:
i) The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries at a total central outlay of Rs. 3000 crore has been implemented since 2015-16 for the development of fisheries in the country. The CSS inter-alia provides financial assistance for the development of fisheries and aquaculture sector including fish production and post-harvest related activities like fish brood banks, hatcheries, construction of ponds, rearing ponds, installation of cages in reservoirs and open sea cages fish culture, fish feed mills, development of post-harvest infrastructures like ice plants, cold storages, ice plants-cum-cold storages and development of fish landing center in reservoirs and fishing harbors.
ii) Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Fund (FIDF) has been implemented with a fund size of Rs. 7522.48 crore for providing access to concessional finance for the development of fisheries infrastructure in the country. Under the FIDF, the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairying provide interest subvention up to 3% per annum for providing the concessional finance by the Nodal Loaning Entities for development of infrastructure in the fisheries sector.
iii) Besides, the Government has created the Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF) during 2018-19 with a fund size of Rs. 7,522.48 crores spreading over five years. Further, the Government, in its Union Budget 2019-20 has announced a new scheme the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) which envisages a total investment of about Rs 20,050 crores which include central, state and beneficiary shares over five years w.e.f. 2020-21.
iv) The Government of India during 2018-19 has extended the facility of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) to fish farmers to help them to meet their working capital needs. Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries, a total amount of Rs.550.00 crore has been allocated during 2019-20 for the development of fisheries in the country including Maharashtra.
About Indian Fisheries
- India is the third-largest fish producing country and the second-largest aquaculture fish producer in the world. India contributes about 7% to the global fish production. The country is also home to more than 10% of the global fish biodiversity and is one of the 17-mega biodiversity-rich countries.
- More than 50 different types of fish and shellfish products are being exported to 75 countries around the world. Fish and fish products have presently emerged as the largest group in agricultural exports from India, with 13.77 lakh tonnes in terms of quantity and Rs. 45,106.89 crore in value. This accounts for around 10% of the total exports and nearly 20% of the agricultural exports, and contribute to about 0.91% of the GDP and 5.23% to the Agricultural GVA of the country.
Categorization of Fish by their habitat:
- Freshwater Fish: Fish that spend most or all of their life in freshwaters, such as rivers and lakes, having a salinity of less than 0.5 ppt. around 40% of all known species of fish are found in freshwater. They may be divided into Coldwater Fish (5 – 20 oC); examples: Mahseer, Trout, etc., and Warmwater Fish (25 – 35 oC); example: Carps, Catfish, Snakeheads, Featherbacks, etc.
- Brackishwater Fish: Fish that can tolerate a wide range of salinity (0.5 – 30.0 ppt) and live in backwaters, estuaries and coastal waters. Example: Mullet, Milkfish, Seabass, Pearlspot, Mudskipper, etc.
- Marine Fish: Fish that spend most or all of their life in seawater, such as Seas and Oceans, having salinity above 30 ppt. About 240 species are contributing to the marine fisheries. Example: Sardines, Mackerel, Ribbonfish, Anchovies, Grouper, Cobia, Tuna, etc.