1. The Living World
1. It is much easier for a small animal to run uphill than for a large animal, because [NEET 2016]
(a) it is easier to carry a small body weight.
(b) smaller animals have a higher metabolic rate.
(c) small animals have a lower O2 requirement.
(d) the efficiency of muscles in large animals is less than in the small animals.
Ans: (b) Basal metabolic rate is inversely proportional to body size. So smaller animals have a higher metabolic rate. Hence production of energy is more.
2. Which one of the following aspects is an exclusive characteristic of living things ? [NEET 2011M]
(a) Isolated metabolic reactions occur in vitro
(b) Increase in mass from inside only
(c) Perception of events happening in the environment and their memory
(d) Increase in mass by accumulation of material both on surface as well as internally.
Ans: (c) All living things have an ability to respond to their environment, that is also called stimulation.
3. Biological organisation starts with [NEET 2007]
(a) cellular level
(b) organismic level
(c) atomic level
(d) submicroscopic molecular level
Ans: (d) Biological organisms starts with submicroscopic moleculer level like viruses, bacteria etc. These organisms are unable to be seen by naked eyes without the help of microscope or even electron microscope.
4. The living organisms can be unexceptionally distinguished from the non-living things on the basis of their ability for [NEET 2007]
(a) interaction with the environment and progressive evolution
(c) growth and movement
(d) responsiveness to touch.
Ans: (b) There are several factors and processes which differentiate living beings from nonliving beings like reproducction, respiration, growth, etc. But among them reproduction is the only difference which differentiates living being from non-living beings without any exception.
5. Angiosperms have dominated the land flora primarily because of their [NEET 2004]
(a) power of adaptability in diverse habitat
(b) property of producing large number of seeds
(c) nature of self pollination
(d) domestication by man
Ans: (a) Angiosperms have adapted themselves to all kinds of habitat – terrestial, aquatic, tropical, deciduous and alpine. Self pollination is seen in very few angiosperms. Production of large number of seeds ensure that at least some will germinate. Not all plants have been domesticated by man.
6. Organisms which obtain energy by the oxidation of reduced inorganic compounds are called [NEET 2002]
Ans: (b) The organisms obtaining energy by chemical reactions independent of light are called chemotrophs. When the reductants obtained from the environment in are inorganic form then organisms are called chemoautotrophs. If they are organic, then the organisms are chemoheterotrophs. Photoautotrophs make their food by photosynthesis using energy from the sun. Saprozoic organisms obtain food from dead and decaying matter.
7. What is true for photolithotrops? [NEET 2001]
(a) Obtain energy from radiations and hydrogen from organic compounds
(b) Obtain energy from radiations and hydrogen from inorganic compounds
(c) Obtain energy from organic compounds
(d) Obtain energy from inorganic compounds
Ans: (b) Photolithotrophs manufacture their own organic nutrients from inorganic raw materials (H2, O2) with the help of radiation energy.
8. First life on earth was [NEET 2001]
Ans: (b) First living beings were formed in the environment of sea having abundant organic molecules. They absorbed the organic materials for the sake of nutrtion and hence were chemoheterotrophs.
9. The most important feature of all living systems is to [NEET 2000]
(a) utilize oxygen to generate energy
(b) replicate the genetic information
(c) produce gametes
(d) utilize solar energy for metabolic activities
Ans: (b) Replication of the genetic information causes transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next.
10. The book Genera Plantarum was written by [NEET 1999]
(c) Engler and Prantl
(d) Bentham & Hooker
Ans: (d) Bentham & Hooker wrote the book Genera Plantarum. Bentham began with the Flora Hongkongensis in 1861, which was the first comprehensive work on any part of the little-known flora of China and Hong Kong, including Hong Kong Croton. This was followed by the Flora Australiensis, in seven volumes (1863-1878), the first flora of any large continental area that had ever been finished. His greatest work was the Genera Plantarum, which begun in 1862, and concluded in 1883 in collaboration with Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.
11. Study of fossils is [NEET 1991]
(d) organic evolution
Ans: (a) Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Palaentlogy is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of fossils. Serology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of lizards.
12. Homeostasis is organism’s [NEET 1991]
(a) tendency to change with change in environment
(b) tendency to resist change
(c) disturbance in regulatory control
(d) plants and animal extracts used in homeopathy
Ans: (b) Homoeostasis is the property of all living beings, which is a self regulatory mechanism of maintaining favourable internal condition for uninterrupted chemical reactions in the living system despite the changes in the external environment. e.g. In winter the skin contracts to conserve body heat.
13. Employment of hereditary principles in the improvement of human race is [NEET 1990]
(a) Euthenics (b) Eugenics
(c) Euphenics (d) Ethnology
Ans: (b) Eugenics is the science that deals with factors (such as principles of genetics) related to improvement of human race. Improvement of race is positive eugenics and if factors are impaired, then it is negative eugenics. Euthenics is the science which improves the condition of life and the environment of human being. Ethnology is the study of different races of mankind, their distribution, relationship and activities. Euphenics is the study of body functions and treatment of heredity defect through medical means i.e. genetic engineering.
14. Static concept of species was put forward by [NEET 1988]
(a) de Candolle (b) Linnaeus
(c) Theophrastus (d) Darwin
Ans: (b) Carolus Linnaeus introduced Binomial System of Nomenclature in his book Species Plantarum (1753). He said that there can be variation within species, but they do not change from one species to another.
15. Nomenclature is governed by certain universal rules. Which one of the following is contrary to the rules of nomenclature? [NEET 2016]
(a) Biological names can be written in any language
(b) The first word in a biological name represents the genus name, and the second is a specific epithet
(c) The names are written in Latin and are italicised
(d) When written by hand, the names are to be underlined
Ans: (a) Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
16. The common characteristics between tomato and potato will be maximum at the level of their [NEET NEET Kar. 2013]
(a) Genus (b) Family
(c) Order (d) Division
Ans: (b) Families are characterised on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) belong to the same family Solanaceae.
17. Which one of the following organisms is scientifically correctly named, correctly printed according to the International Rules of Nomenclature and correctly described? [NEET 2012M]
(a) Musca domestica – The common house lizard, a reptile.
(b) Plasmodium falciparum – A protozoan pathogen causing the most serious type of malaria.
(c) Felis tigris – The Indian tiger, well protected in Gir forests.
(d) E.coli – Full name Entamoeba coli, a commonly occurring bacterium in human intestine.
Ans: (c) Plasmodium falciparum – A protozoan pathogen causes the most serious type of malaria that is falciparum malaria. Musca domestica – House fly, an insect belongs to phylum arthropoda. Felis tigris – The Bengal tiger, is well protected in Sundarbans (tiger reserve) E.coli – Escherichia coli, a commonly occurring bacterium in human intestine.
18. Which one of the following animals is correctly matched with its particular named taxonomic category ? [NEET 2011]
(a) Tiger – tigris, the species
(b) Cuttle fish – mollusca, a class
(c) Humans – primata, the family
(d) Housefly – musca, an order
Ans: (a) Tiger and tigris both are from same genus with a particular taxonomic category.
19. ICBN stands for [NEET 2007]
(a) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(b) International congress of Biological Names
(c) Indian Code of Botanical Nomenclature
(d) Indian Congress of Biological Names.
Ans: (a) ICBN (International code of Botanical Nomenclature) – It is one of the code of nomenclature which is independent of zoological and bacteriological nomenclature. The code applies equally to names of taxonomic groups treated as plants whether or not these groups were originally treated as such.
20. Phenetic classification is based on [NEET 2003, 04]
(a) sexual characteristics
(b) the ancestral lineage of existing organisms
(c) observable characteristics of existing organisms
(d) dendograms based on DNA characteristics
Ans: (c) Phenetic classification is based upon observable characteristics of an organism. Phylogenetic system of classification is a system indicating the evolutionary or phylogenetic relationship of organisms.