Bihar GK in English

Minerals And Energy Resources of Bihar

Major area of Bihar is situated on the Gangetic Plains and the larger part of state depends on agricultural economy. Before bifurcation (year 2000), Bihar state was one of the leading producers of minerals.However, after bifurcation, limited deposit of minerals is found in the state and most of the parts of rich mineral deposits went to Jharkhand. Thus,mining and quarrying sector in the state is very less developed.

Bihar is the only state in India where pyrite is extensively produced (about 94%) Archean rocks are found in the South and South-Eastern parts of the state.

Metallic minerals are mainly found in these rocks where bauxite and gold are prevalent.

Archean rocks are found in the districts of Jamui,Nawada,Munger, Banka, Bhagalpur and Gaya. The Vindhyan rock group is found in the South-Western parts of Bihar which has non-metallic minerals. These minerals are pyrite,mica, china clay, quartz, slate and so on. Vindhyan rocks are found in the districts of Nawada, Jamui, Rohtas and Aurangabad.

Major Minerals in Bihar

Minerals are the basis of industrialisation and development of a state. The major minerals of the state of Bihar are discussed below:

Bauxite

➤ It is an important ore used for making Aluminium. It is not a specific mineral but a rock consisting mainly of hydrated aluminium oxides.

➤ It is found in Kharagpur hills of Munger district. It is estimated that there are 1.5 million tonnes deposits of high quality bauxite in this region.

Iron-ore

➤ Its deposits are found in the district of Gaya, Bhagalpur and Jamui.

➤ Magnetite variety of iron-ore is found in Gaya and Jamui, whereas haematite variety of iron-ore is found in Bhagalpur district.

Manganese

➤ Manganese is a metal supplement which is found in the form of natural ash in the sedimentary rocks of Dharwar period. It is not found as a free element in nature but is often found in minerals in combination with iron.

➤ Pyrolusite and bronite are alloys of manganese.

➤ Manganese is used in making iron and steel and it is used as basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy. It is also used in making bleaching powder, insecticide, paints and batteries.

➤ Its deposits are found in Patna, Gaya and Munger districts of Bihar.

Galena

➤ It is an ore of lead. It is used in nuclear energy, paint and other chemical-based industries.

➤ It is mainly found in Abrakha region of Banka district.

Gold

➤ It is a precious mineral which is used for making ornaments and as international currency. It is also used in dentistry and carving purposes.

➤ The deposits of gold are found in the districts of Gaya, Nalanda and Jamui.

➤ As per the Geological Survey of India (GSI), Bihar has about 57% deposits of gold of the country.

➤ The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has confirmed that there are deposits of gold in the regions of Kabutra and Nakia hill regions of Rajgir and Karmatia, Rani hill, Badmaria, Marhi hill in Sono block in Jamui district.

Coal

➤ It is found in the districts of Bhagalpur and Munger which are located adjacent to Rajmahal hills region (Jharkhand).

➤ As per Geological Survey of India (GSI) there are 160 million tonnes deposits of coal in Bihar state.

Mica

➤ It is a bad conductor of heat and electricity. It is mainly used in the industries related to heat and manufacture electricity resistance products.

➤ Mica is used in rubber industry, paint industry and electronic industry.

➤ Mica belt is extended over 3400 sq km area with a width of 30 m in Bihar. It extends from Eastern part of Nawada to Jharkhand state.

➤ This belt is located in Chakai, Batia and Charka Pathar in Jamui district and Nawada district of Bihar.

➤ The world’s high quality ruby mica is found in Bihar and Jharkhand.

➤ Other important areas where mica is found are Munger, Bhagalpur and Gaya districts.

Limestone

➤ It is made of either calcium carbonate or double constituents of calcium and magnesium. In addition to these, it also consists of silica, alumina, iron oxides, phosphorus and sulphur.

Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and exist in mainly Vindhyan rocks group (Western part of Bihar).

➤ The good quality limestone is found in Rohtas hills, Kaimur plateau and Munger.

➤ The largest limestone deposits of the state are found in the regions of Rohtas district like in Rohtasgarh, Ramdihra, Banjari and Dehri-on-Son.

➤ Good quality limestones are used in cement industry while lower quality are found in iron, sugar and building construction.

Lead and Zinc

➤ These minerals are found in Banka and Rohtas districts. Lead is used in iron and steel industry and it is a bad conductor of electricity.

Asbestos

➤ It is a fibrous mineral which is comprised of magnesium, silica and water. Chrysotile and Amphibolite are its main types.

➤ It is mainly found in Munger district in Bihar.

➤ It is a great resistant to fire and electricity thus, it is used in the products of fire proofs and electricity proof. It is used in aeroplanes and railway coaches.

➤ Fire-proof suits which are used by fire-fighters are made from asbestos.

Beryllium

➤ It is found in the igneous rocks in the district of Gaya.

➤ It is mainly used as a moderator in nuclear reactor for atomic power generation, in spring industry, in making fluorescent lamps, carburettor of ships, cyclotron and so on.

Pyrite

➤ It is a sulphide of iron. It is less used in iron making and more used in making sulphuric acid. The high proportion of sulphur makes it injurious for making iron.

➤ Sulphuric acid is used in many industries such as fertiliser, chemicals, rayon, petroleum, steel, etc. Elemental sulphur is useful for manufacturing explosives, matches, insecticides, fungicides and for vulcanising rubber.

➤ The main deposits are found in the Sone valley at Amjhor in Rohtas district in Bihar. Here, it has deposits with 47% sulphur.

➤ In Amjhor, there is iron pyrite industry.

➤ The Central Government has set up Pyrite Phosphate and Chemicals Limited in Amjhor as a public enterprise.

➤ Pyrite is also found in the upper Vindhyan rocks group and Kurari, Manda and Kariria.

➤ Iron-pyrite is found in the 109 sq km area of Amjhor in Rohtas district.

➤ As per the report of Indian Bureau of Mines, 2017, Bihar has about 95% pyrite resources of India.

Feldspar

➤ It is found along with quartz in pegmatite rocks. It has applications in ceramic, glass and refractory industries. Feldspar is found in Gaya, Jamui and Munger districts.

➤ It is also used in the form of moon stone and sun stone.

Saltpetre

➤ It is found in the form of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. It is mainly used in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rock propellants, fireworks, glass and to soften steel.

➤ Its main producers are Saraiya Pahari (Gopalganj) and Manjhi (Saran).

➤ Other important producers are Muzaffarpur, East Champaran, Saran, Darbhanga, Bhojpur, Gaya and Munger districts.

Quartzite

➤ It is a hard non-foliated metamorphic rock. It is a converted form of sandstone.

➤ It is mainly used as building construction material and to make heat resistants in the industrial sector.

➤ Its large deposits are found in Kharagpur hills of Munger district and hill ranges of Chakai area of Jamui district. Other important areas are Jamalpur, Lakhisarai and Nalanda.

China Clay (Kaolinite)

➤ China clay or Kaolinite is formed by the erosion of feldspar in granite rocks. It is a great resistant of fire which does not have potash and soda.

➤ It is mainly used in ceramics, blast furnaces, fertilisers, textile industry, paper, paints, medicines, beauty products, and cement industries.

➤ Its deposits are found in the districts of Bhagalpur, Munger, Banka and Vaishali.

Fire Clay

➤ It is found in the sedimentary rocks below the coal deposits. It is a refractory clay in which potash and soda are found in less quantity.

➤ It is mainly used in the blast furnaces, chimneys for melting of minerals in factories and for construction of boilers. Fire bricks are made from fire clay in the factories.

➤ Fire clay is mainly found in the districts of Purnea, Munger and Bhagalpur.

Uranium

➤ It is found in igneous rocks as a radioactive element. It is found as compounds of pegmatite, pitchblende (uranite) and uranium.

➤ It is found in the mica mines of Akbari hills of Gaya district and pegmatite pores of Nawada districts.

➤ Its large deposit is also found in the boundary fault of Magadha division.

Monazite

➤ It is a compound of thorium, uranium, cerium and tantalum elements. It is mainly found in the pegmatite rocks in the districts of Gaya and Munger.

Quartz

➤ It is mainly used in cement industry, refractory, iron-steel industry (in furnaces), electronic industry and power industry.

➤ It is found in Jamui, Gaya and Nawada districts.

Slate

➤ Slate stone is used in decorative items and for industrial purposes.

➤ It is estimated that about 2.53 million tonnes deposits of black and coloured slate stones are found in Kharagpur hill region in Munger district.

➤ Other important areas are Dharhara and Kajra of Jamalpur town inMunger district.

Steatite

➤ It is mainly used in beauty products and paint industry.

➤ It is mainly found in Shankarpur region of Jamui district in Bihar.

Sand Stone

➤ It is mainly used as decorative building materials and in glass industry.

➤ It is mainly found in Kaimur hills, which has high silica contents.

Granite

➤ It is a type of crystalline intrusive igneous that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

Its important components are quartz and feldspar.

➤ It is mainly found (as black and coloured decorative granite) in Bhagalpur, Nawada, Banka and Munger districts.

Mineral Oil and Gas

There are possibility to have mineral oil and gas deposits in the North-West part of Bihar, which may lie in the districts of Katihar and Purnea.

Barauni Oil Refinery It was set up in collaboration with Soviet Russia and Romania in July, 1964. It gets crude oil from Digboi refinery in Assam state.

Mineral-Based Industries

Industries

Location

Asbestos

Munger

Bauxite

Munger, Rohtas

Beryllium

Gaya

Decorative Stones

Banka, Jamui, Gaya

Dolomite

Rohtas

Feldspar

Gaya, Jamui, Munger

Fire Clay

Purnea, Munger, Bhagalpur

Glass stone

Bhagalpur

Gold

Sono (Jamui), Munger, Gaya, Nalanda

Harabhara Fertilizers

Dhutkagra (Sitamarhi)

Important Minerals a

nd their Location in Bihar

Kalyanpur Cements Limited

Banjari(Rohtas)

Limestone

Rohtas, Kaimur, Bhagalpur, Banka, Nawada, Gaya, Jamui

Magnetite

Gaya, Jamui

Manganese

Patna, Gaya, Munger

Mica

Gaya, Nawada, Munger, Jamui

Mineral

Location

Mineral oil

Munger, Rajgir

Nirman Cements Limted

Bihta (Patna)

Oil Refinery

Barauni (Begusarai)

Petroleum

Purnea, Katihar and nearby regions

Porcelain

Munger

Pyrites

Amjhor (Rohtas), Son valley, Banjari, Kuriari

Quartz

Munger

Saltpetre

Siwan, Gopalganj, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Patna, Begusarai, Saran, Samastipur, Gaya and Munger, Darbhanga, Bhojpur

Slate

Bhagalpur, Gaya, Jamui

Soap Stone

Gaya, Munger, Nawada

Tin

Deoraj and Kurkhand (Gaya)

Uranium

Gaya, Nawada

Mineral Location

Mineral

Location

Galena

Banka

Granite

Bhagalpur, Nawada, Banka, Munger

Iron-ore

Gaya, Bhagalpur, Jamui

Kaolinite (China Clay)

Bhagalpur, Munger, Banka, Vaishali

Lead and Zinc

Banka, Rohtas

Monazite

Gaya, Munger

Sand stone

Rohtas

Silica Sand

Nalanda, Bhagalpur, Jamui

Steatite

Jamui

Energy Resources in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

Energy resources are something that can produce heat, power life,move objects, or produce electricity. Energy resources means power sources. Energy sources are of two types i.e conventional and non-conventional source of energy.

Availability of Power in Bihar

➤ Bihar State Electricity Board (BSEB) was set up on 1st April, 1958. As per Economic Survey 2018-19, the power capacity availability in the state was 3889 MW in March, 2018.

➤ There has been significant improvement in availability of power in Bihar from 1712 MW in 2011-12 to 4535 MW in 2017-18, implying a growth of around 165 percent in six years.

➤ In 2017-18, the top 3 districts in power consumption were Patna (4965 MU), Gaya (1522 MU) and Nalanda (1008 MU). On the other end, 3 bottom most districts were Sheohar (76 MU), Arwal (135 MU) and Sheikhpura (176 MU).

➤ In India, the average consumption of power per person is 927 kWh per hour, whereas it is 203 unit (kWh) per hour per person in Bihar.

Power Transmission in Bihar

➤ Power is supplied to various categories of consumers through a transmission network, which also involves the transformation of high voltage power to lower voltage.

➤ The transmission network serves as an important link between the generation and distribution of electricity.

➤ As per the Economic Survey 2018-19 about 15,707 circuit km EHV (Extra High Voltage) transmission line, 142 grid substations with total transformation capacity of 7710 MVA at 220/132 KV level and 12,680 MVA at 132/33 KV level comprise the transmission system in Bihar.

Institutional Structure of State’s Power Sector

The Bihar State Electricity Board (BSEB) was set up on 1st April, 1958 under Electricity Supply Act, 1948.

Under the new Bihar State Electricity Reforms Transfer Scheme 2012, the BSEB has been divided into the following companies in November, 2012:

Bihar State Power Generation Company Limited (BSPGCL) The main responsibilites of this company are to coordinate other companies engaged in power generations and procure fuel, its transportation and settle pending disputes.

Bihar State Power Holding Company Limited (BSPHCL) It is the erstwhile BSEB, which is the parent company and owns the shares of the newly reorganised 4 companies such as BSPGCL, BSPTCL,NBPDCL and SBPDCL. It is basically an investment company which coordinate the activities, handle disputes and provide necessary support to these companies.

North Bihar Power Distribution Company Limited (NBPDCL) and South Bihar Power Distribution Companies Limited (SBPDCL) These two companies distribute electricity to all consumers and also responsible for implementation of rural electrification schemes.

Bihar State Power Transgression Company Limited (BSPTCL) The main responsibilities of this company are to transmit electricity in the state , develop an efficient system of intra-state transmission lines for electricity, connecting load centres to generating stations.

Thermal Power Stations/Plants in Bihar

The main source of energy in thermal power is coal. Important thermal power stations in Bihar :

Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station This station is located 5 km South of Sabour in Bhagalpur district. It was commissioned in the year 1979. It came into operation in the year 1992. This power station gets its coal from Jharkhand. The total installed capacity of this power station is upto 2340 MW.

Barauni Thermal Power Station (BTPS) This project/scheme was established at Barauni in Begusarai district in Bihar.

This thermal power plant was set-up in association with the Russian collaboration. It came into operation in 1962. It gets its raw material and diesel for fuel from Barauni Oil Refinery. It is coal based thermal power station.

Earlier it had 7 different units, but 5 of them are not in operation any more. An addition of capacity unit has been achieved in January, 2018 and Unit 9 in March, 2018.

On 17th April, 2018 Bihar Cabinet gave its nod to handing over Barauni Thermal Power Station to National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).

On 15th May, 2018, Bihar Government signed an MoU to hand over this Thermal Power Station to NTPC.

Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited (KBUNL) or Kanti Thermal Power Station It is located at Kanti block of Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. It was set up in 1985. This coal-based power station gets its coal from coal mines of Jharkhand.

This station supplies electricity to the Northern Bihar regions. It has 2 units of 110 MWeach. Kanti Thermal Power Station was handed over to NTPC on 15th May, 2018.

Patna Thermal Power Plant It is located in Karbigahiya in Patna district. It is very small but very old power plant. It is now under the Bihar Rajya Vidyut Parishad.

Barh Super Thermal Power Station It is located in Barh in Patna district. It was commissioned in October, 2013. The Commercial operation started in November, 2014. This station is owned and developed by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).

Its total installed capacity is 3300 MW.

It is connected with National Waterway No.1 from Haldia port or Ganga Bhagirath- Hooghly river system.

Nabinagar Stage-1 Thermal Power Project It is located in Aurangabad district. The production work was started in the year 2018. The generation capacity of Nabinagar Thermal Power Project is 1980 MW (660 MW3).Nabinagar Thermal Power Station is handed over to NTPC on 33 years lease on 15thMay, 2018.

UltraMega Power Project (Banka) It is a proposed thermal power plant with installed capacity of 4000 MW.

Buxar Thermal Power Project An agreement was signed in November, 2015 with Saluj Hydroelectric Corporation for the construction of Greenfield power projects at Chausa in Buxar, with 2 units of 660MWeach (i.e. 1320 MW).

Hydro-Power Projects in Bihar

SonWestern Link CanalHydroelectric Project It is located at Dehri-on-Son, in Rohtas district. It was set up in the year 1991-92.

Kosi Hydel Power Station (KHPS) It is located at Birpur in Supaul district. It was commissioned during 1970-78.

Agnoor Hydroelectric Project It is located in Arwal district. It was commissioned during 2004-05.

Eastern Gandak Canal Hydroelectric Project It is located at Valmiki nagar in West Champaran. It was commissioned in 1996-97.

Son Eastern Link Canal Hydroelectric Project It is located at Barun in Aurangabad district. It was set up in the year 1996-97.

Triveni Link Canal Hydroelectric Project It is located inWest Champaran. It was commissioned during 2007-08.

Dhelabagh Hydroelectric Project It is located in Rohtas district. It was commissioned in 2006-07

Nasirganj Hydroelectric Project It is located in Rohtas district. It was commissioned during 2007-08.

Sebari Hydroelectric Project It is located in Rohtas district. It was commissioned during 2008-09.

Jainagra Hydroelectric Project It is located in Rohtas district. It was commissioned during 2007-08.

Shirkhinda Hydroelectric Project It is located in Rohtas district. It was commissioned during 2009-10.

Arwal Hydroelectric Project It is located in Arwal district. It was commissioned during 2011-12.

Belsar Hydroelectric Project It is located in Arwal district. It was commissioned during 2011-12.

Bihar State Hydro Power Policy, 2012

The Government of Bihar has formulated Hydro Power Policy, 2012 in order to exploit the available renewal sources of energy. The key objectives of this policy are as under:

➤ To enhance the over all generation capacity of the state including hydro power.

➤ To obtain optimal thermal – hydro generation mix of 60:40 ratio.

➤ To encourage the participation of Independent Power Producers by offering them best policy frame work, and support.

Bihar State Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (BSHPC)

BSHPC was established in 1958 to oversee expansion of hydroelectric power projects in Bihar. The BSHPC is engaged in exploring the possibilities of more minor hydel power projects in Bihar.

New Power Projects in Bihar

Nabinagar Stage-1 Plant This project is located in Aurangabad district. The expected date of completion of all the 3 units are December, 2018, March, 2019 and October, 2019 respectively.

Power Project in Buxar This project is located at Chausa (Buxar), having 2 units of 660 MW each. It is expected to be completed by 2022.

Ultra Mega Power Project A proposal has been sent for the establishment of a ultra mega power project in Banka (approximately 4000 MW). Bihar has been allotted 2000 MW of power from this project.

Scheme/Projects Related to Power Development in Bihar

Important schemes/projects :

Deendayal Upadhayay Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

➤ It was started by the Central Government in the year 2014. The scheme also includes Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana.

➤ This scheme was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Patna.

Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)

➤ This scheme was started in the year 2014.

➤ It has been handed over in private sector in order to ensure 24×7 power supply and reduction in Aggregate Technical and Commercial Losses (AT&C).

➤ This scheme covers works related to strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution network, provisioning of solar panels on government buildings, including net-metering, metering of feeders/distribution transformers/ consumers in 133 statutory towns (excluding 6 towns in distribution franchise area).

Mukhyamantri Vidyut Sambandh Nischay Yojana

➤ The aim of this scheme is to provide electric connection to all Below Poverty Line (BPL) households under Rural Electrification.

➤ This scheme is also providing electric connection to all rural Above Poverty Line (APL) households.

Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY)

➤ This scheme was started in the year 2017. The Central Ministry of Power launched UDAY scheme for operational and financial turnaround of power Distribution Companies (DISCOM).

➤ UDAY scheme includes various activities for improvement in operational and financial efficiencies. It ultimately aims at reduction in Aggregate Technical and Commercial Loss (AT & C) to 15 per cent, and reduction in gap between Average Cost of Supply (ACS) and Average Revenue Realised (ARR) to zero, both by 2019-20.

Har Ghar Bijli under Saubhagya

The objective of Saubhagya is to provide energy access to all by last mile connectivity and electricity connections to all remaining un-electrified households in rural and as well as urban areas. Saubhagya scheme is also known as Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana started by Union Government.

‘Har Ghar Bijli’ is one of the seven resolves of the Saat Nischay (Seven Resolves) of the State Government, with an aim to provide electricity connection to each willing household.

Village Electrification

➤ The scheme of Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY), as approved by the Central Government for implementation during 11th and 12th Five Year Plans has now been subsumed in the new scheme of the Central Government, called Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojana (DDUGVY).

➤ The objective of this scheme is rural electrification for completion of the targets laid down under RGGVY by carrying forward the approved outlay of RGGVY to DDUGJY.

Developments in Power Sector by Bihar Government

As per Economic Survey-2018-19, the recent developments in power sector of Bihar :

Power Theft Redressal throughWhatsApp A separate and dedicated mobile number has been introduced for power theft information by consumers throughout the state.

Spot Billing It has been implemented for all consumers of the state through android mobile and bluetooth printer.

Tariff Rationalisation Bihar has become the pioneer state in India to implement ‘Tariff Rationalisation’.

The tariff order for 2017-18 has been issued on ‘Zero subsidy’ basis to reflect the true cost of supply, upfront-subsidy to be provided to consumers and assistance (if any) given to DISCOMS as a measure to enhance transparency and accountability.

Toll Free Number-1912 To resolve the complaints of consumers, one Toll Free Number 1912 has been started in Bihar on 24 × 7 basis.On lodging complaint on this number, the consumers will get a call and SMS regarding their complaint.

ProjectMonitoring App For intensive and real time monitoring of different on-going projects of the power distribution companies in the state, a Mobile App ‘DC-Nine’ has been developed. Through this app, the latest status of the project and information regarding its inspection can be loaded in the mobile from the spot itself by the field project officers.

GISMapping GIS mapping of power lines, power sub-stations and Grid Sub-stations at 33 KV, 132 KV, 220 KV and 400 KV level has been completed.

New Techniques in Transmission System In the new projects of transmission system, most advanced techniques like Sub-station Automation System (SAS), Optical GroundWire (OPGW),High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) conductor and Gas Insulated System (GIS) have been introduced.

Renewable Energy Sources in Bihar

Bihar has renewable energy potential of more than 12.559 GW, which is yet to be harnessed. There is a proposal of investment of ` 20 thousand crore in the Renewable Energy Sector for next 5 years. This project aims to produce about 3433 MWclean energy for the state. This renewable energy will indude 2969 MWfrom solar energy, 244 MWfrom Biomas and 220 MWfrom small hydro-electric power.

Bihar Renewable Energy Development Agency (BREDA)

BREDA is responsible for the development of projects that would use non-conventional energy sources for production of electricity.

The important schemes implementing by BREDA :

➤ Solar Photovoltaic Schemes

➤ Bureau of Energy Efficiency Schemes

Bihar Policy for Pro Motion of New and Renewable Energy Sources, 2017

➤ This policy came into existence to give boost to the renewable energy in Bihar.

This policy supersedes the previous policy of 2011.

➤ The objective of the policy is to target installed capacity of 2969 MW solar, 244 MW biomass and 220 MW small hydropower by 2022 in the state.

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