The medieval period in history of Bihar is divided into two phases i.e. Early Medieval period and Medieval period.Medieval history of Bihar consists of foreign invasions, battles and establishment of Muslim rule. The early part of the medieval history in Bihar saw the rise of the Pala, Sena and Karnata dynasties, which enriched the social and cultural aspects of Bihar.
The medieval period in Bihar was marked by Turkish invasions and from 1200-1526 AD, Bihar remained a part of Delhi Sultanate. Slave, Khilji, Tughlaq, Sur and Noohani dynasties established their rule in Bihar. In 1526, Babur established, the rule of Mughals and after that, the next 250 years, Bihar became a part of Mughal Empire.
Sources of Medieval History in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)
There are a number of sources that gave information about the medieval history of Bihar. Bihar has many tombs,mosques and forts of medieval period.
The literary sources which gave information about medieval history of Bihar are Tabaqat-i-Nasiri by Minhaj-us-Siraj, Tazzuk-i-Babri by Babur written in Turkish language, Akbar Nama by Abul Faz’l, Tarikh-i-Shershahi by Abbas Sarvani, Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi by Ziauddin Barani, Riyaz-us-Salatin by Gulam Hussain Salim, etc. Local writers’writings in Maithili and Sanskrit language also gives us important information about medieval period. Some important works are Kirtilata, Kritpataka of Vidhyapati, Varnaratnakar of Jyotirishwar, Rajnitiratnakar of Chandreshwar Vachaspati, etc. Sufi literature such as Tajkira,Maktubat and Malkujat also provide information about medieval history of Bihar.
The archaeological sources which gave information about medieval history of Bihar are coins, inscriptions, etc.
Coins Some coins of Alauddin Khilji was found at Jayanagar in Lakhisarai district which conforms the influence of Delhi Sultanate in Bihar. The discovery of two copper coins bearing the name of Bajirao Shinde conform the strong presence of Maratha in this region.
According to an Arabic inscription of 1326 AD found on the wall of Jama Mosque in Darbhanga,mentions that,Darbhanga become a mint town too with the title of ‘Iqlim Tughluqpur urf Tirhut’. This inscription is related with Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Akbar constructed Taksals in Patna, Azimabad and Rajmahal where coins were made after 1580 AD.
Inscriptions Inscriptions of medieval Bihar can be classified into two categories i.e. Arabic and Persian and Non-Persian.
Arabic and Persian inscriptions are found on the walls of mosques, tombs, imambaras, etc. These inscriptions are mostly found in Patna, Bihar Sharif, Sasaram and Rajmahal. An inscription of Sher Shah found at his tomb dated 1545 AD and Bedibun inscription of Muhammad-ibn-Yussaf, are some inscriptions which highlights the expansion of Muslim rule in Bihar.
Non-Persian inscriptions give information about the small kingdoms which emerged after the fall of Pala dynasty. Some important non-Persian inscriptions, are Sanokhar inscription of Ballalsena,Maner copper plate inscription about the rule of Gahadalavas, Simraon pillar inscriptions, Andhrathadi inscriptions and the inscriptions of Pratapmalla about the rule of Karnatas in Bihar, etc.
The traveller’s account which gave information about medieval history of Bihar are accounts of Mullah Takiya, Abdul Latif,Mohammad SadiqWahbahani, Basatin-ul-Uns, etc. The account of European travellers include the account of Peter Mundi John Travernier,Mannuchi Bishop, Ralph Fitch, etc.
Monuments gives us information about the social, religious, economic conditions of the state under the particular ruler. In the early 19th century, Buchanan prepared a report on the historical monuments and inscriptions of Bihar. In 1950s,Dr R Patil of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India) made a list of important monuments and places of Bihar and in 1960 ZA Desai made the list. All these informations helped us to understand properly the medieval history of Bihar. 70 monuments of national importance have been recognised by ASI in Bihar.
Famous Monuments Sites in Bihar
Queen’s Palace, Tomb of Ibrahim Bayu
Three Rock Inscription
Tomb of Bakhtiyar Khan
Tomb of Hasan Shah Suri
Tomb of Shah Makhadun, Daulat Maneri and Ibrahim Khan
Tomb of Sher Shah Suri
Early Medieval Period in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)
During the early medieval period, Pala dynasty emerged as a strong dynasty from mid 7th century to early part of 11th century. After Pala dynasty, Sena and Karnata dynasties also emerged.
The Pala dynasty (AD 750-1150) emerged after the death of Shashanka, when the Bengal and Bihar region was in a state of anarchy. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism.Gopala (AD 750-770) was the first ruler and the founder of Pala dynasty. Important rulers of Pala dynasty were as follows:
➤ After the fall of powers in Eastern India, to avoid the situation of ‘matsya-nyay’ Gopal ascended the throne as the first King of the Pala dynasty.
➤ In AD 750, the Khalimpur copper plate inscription suggests that the poeple of this region chose him the king. This event is recognised as one of the first democratic elections in South Asia since the time of Mahajanapadas.
➤ During his reign, he consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal as well as parts of Bihar. In Odantpuri (now Bihar Sharif), a Buddhist Monastery and a University was established by Gopala.
➤ After Gopala, his son Dharampala (AD 770-810) succeeded the throne in 770 AD. The empire reached its peak under Dharampala and Devapala.
➤ Dharampala extended the empire in the Northern parts of the Indian sub-continent. This triggered a power struggle for the control of the Indian sub-continent.
➤ After capturing Kannauj, he gained the title of Uttarapathswamini and organised a grand Darbar in Kannauj.
➤ Dharampala was a Buddhist. He established Vikramshila University at Antichak village of modern Bhagalpur district. He also gave 200 villages for the maintenance of Nalanda University.
➤ Devapala (AD 810-850) successor of Dharampala, extended the empire to South Asia and beyond. He made Munger as his capital.
➤ According to Pala copper plate inscription, Devapala conquered the Utkalas and the Pragjyotisha (Assam).
➤ The inscriptions of Devapala have been found in Ghorawan, Hilsa, Nalanda and Munger.
➤ Balaputradeva, ruler of Suvarnabhumi founded a Buddhist monastery at Nalanda during his time.
➤ The Pala kings also patronised the Hinduism. They gave donations for construction of temples and for educational purposes like setting gurukuls.
➤ The Pala kings had a close trade relations with the South-East Asia and China.
The later rulers of Pala dynasty were Vigrahapala, (son of Devapala),Narayanpala, Rajyapala,Gopala II and Mahipala I. Among these rulers of Pala dynasty,Mahipala I was the most prominent ruler. Vigrahapala and Mahipala II were the great rulers of Pala dynasty.Mahipala II faced the revolt of ‘Kaivarta’ Sandhyakar.Nandi was his court poet. Rampala was the last ruler of Pala empire.
In 988 AD, Mahipala succeeded the throne. He was also known as the second founder of Pala dynasty. Bihar and Bengal were invaded by the South Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century during the reign of Mahipala I. In 1023 AD, Mahipala fought with Rajendra Chola of Chola Dynasty in which he was defeated. Mahipala I died in the same year along with which Pala dynasty came to an end.
➤ After the downfall of Pala dynasty, new dynasty emerged in Bihar i.e. Sena Dynasty. It was founded by Sumantsena in mid-11th century. He was succeeded by Vijayasena.
➤ After Vijayasena, his son Ballalsena became the king who maintained the dominions inherited from his father.
➤ He was a great scholar who wrote Danasagar and Advutsagar.
➤ He started a social movement named ‘Kulinism’ by which the nobility of birth and purity of blood were carefully protected.
➤ The Sena dynasty was weakened due to internal rebellions and invasion of Bakhtiyar Khalji.
➤ Lakshamansena was the last important ruler of this dynasty.
➤ Lakshamansena fled from his capital and took refuge in East Bengal’s Vikrampur. ➤ Though Lakshamansena was not politically competent, he was a patron of the great literary minds of the day. Personalities like Jayadev, the author of Gita Govinda, the linguist Halayudha, Dhoyi, the author of Pavanadutam adorned his court.
➤ After the Muslim invasion, Bihar slowly passed onto the hands of Turks and its glory also declined.
➤ Karnata Dynasty (AD 1097-1324) was founded by Nanyadeva in Mithila.
➤ Apart from being a great warrior he was a great patron of music. He analysed different ragas and wrote a treaty in music.
➤ Simraon in Champaran was the capital of Karnata dynasty. Later Kamladityya Sthan (Kamlathan) became their capital which is now known as Andhrathadi in Madhubani district.
➤ Other rulers of this dynasty were Ganga Singh Deva, Narsingh Deva and Harisimhadeva. Ganga Singh Deva was an able administrator and the son of Nanyadeva. Narsingh Deva had the possession of Tirhut and Darbhanga areas.
➤ Harisimhadeva was the last ruler of Karnata dynasty.
➤ He was a great patron of art and literature. In his court Jyotirishwar, the author of ‘Varnaratnakar’ was the royal priest.
➤ The period of Karnata rulers is also known as the Golden period of Mithila.
➤ Harisimhadeva was instrumental in initiating and implementing Panji Vyavastha and Panji Prabandha.
➤ Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq attacked Mithila due to which Harisimhadeva fled to Nepal.
After this, the Karnata Dynasty was taken over by Oiniwar dynasty.
➤ The rulers of the Oiniwar dynasty governed North Bihar (Mithila) between 1353 to 1526 AD.
Medieval Period in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)
TheMedieval period in Bihar was marked by invasion of the Turks fromWest Asia.
Turkish Invasion in Bihar
➤ From 11th century Magadh (Bihar) was being attacked by the Islamic invaders of middle East.
➤ Bihar was attacked by Muhammad Ghori who destroyed a lot of Buddhist monastries including Nalanda University and killed many innocent people.
➤ The rise of Buddhism in Magadha was finally swept away by the Islamic invasion under Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji. He was one of the General of Qutb-al-Din Aibak who destroyed monasteries fortified by the Sena armies, during which many of the Viharas and the famous universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed. He also destroyed Odantpuri city university. He was the first muslim conqueror of Bihar.
➤ Bakhtiyar Khilji founded the city of Bakhtiyarpur in 1198 AD.
➤ Most part of Northern Bihar was under the rule of Karnata rulers of Mithila, while Southern Bihar was ruled by various small kingdoms.
➤ Bakhtiyar Khilji also invaded on Mithila’s Karnata King Narsingh Deva’s territory. Later on, Bengal and Assam region was also invaded by him. He had died there and his mausoleum is in Bihar Sharif. Sadruddin Hasan Nizami wrote about Khilji’s invasion in 1192-1228 AD in ‘Taj-ul-Maasir’.
➤ Turkish invasions led to the rule of Delhi sultanate and Bihar was either included under rulers ruling from Delhi or made into a separate province.
Bihar and Slave Dynasty
➤ There is limited evidence about condition of Bihar at the time of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the founder of Slave Dynasty in Delhi. After Ali Mardan, Hasmuddin Iwaz Khilji established independent rule in Lakhnauti. He was able to get taxes from Tirhut rulers.
➤ In 1225 AD, Iltutmish captured Bihar Sharif. He was the first sultan to organise military campaign and get the possession of Bihar under Delhi Sultanate.
➤ Iltutmish, the slave of Qutb-ud-din-Aibak invaded Bihar Sharif and Barh and later on moved to Lakhnauti. Iwaz army fought near Rajmahal hills but had to surrender. Iltutmish made Malik Allauddin Jani as his representative (Subedar) but Iwaz later on forced him to flee.
➤ Iltutmish’s son Nasiruddin Mahmud in return attacked on Iwaz and killed him. He included Bihar, Awadh and Lakhnauti in his fold and ruled it till 1229 AD.
After Nasiruddin’s death, Malik Ikhtiyar ud-din-Balka (Balkh Khilji) had revolted, so Iltutmish after defeating Balkh separated Bihar from Bengal.
➤ Iltutmish appointed Saifuddin Aibak as the Governor of Bihar and later Tughan Khan became the Governor of Bihar.
➤ After Iltutmish’s death in 1236 AD, the control of Delhi loosened on Bihar.
➤ Balban defeated and killed Tughril Khan, the Lakhnauti ruler and made Bughra Khan as its ruler. Maner, Bihar Sharif, Bhojpur, Gaya, Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur, Santhal Pargana, Nalanda, Lakhisarai and Vikramshila were under slave dynasty. In Tirhut area, Karnata rulers were independent although they gave taxes to Delhi.
Bihar and Khilji Dynasty
➤ In 1290 AD, Jalaluddin Khilji became the Sultan of Delhi and the reign of Khilji dynasty started. In 1296 AD, Alauddin Khilji ascended the throne. He demanded half of the crops on land after measurement as revenue. Sheikh Mohammad Ismail was sent to Darbhanga by Alauddin Khilji but Raja Sakra Singh defeated him.
➤ In 1301 AD, Shamsuddin Firozshah declared himself ruler of Bengal and declared his son Firozshah as Governor of Bihar between 1309 to 1321. Some coins of Khilji dynasty have been found from Bhojpur and Lakhisarai. It shows that they had limited control over Bihar.
Bihar and Tughlaq Dynasty
➤ Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq invaded Bengal and Bihar in 1324 AD. After that Lakhnauti king Nasiruddin had surrendered while Sonargaon King Ghiyasuddin Bahadur had revolted against Sultan’s army. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq had defeated him. He also defeated Mithila King Harisimhadeva (Karnata dynasty). Tughlaq coins have been found from Tirhut.
➤ Darbhanga was called Tughlaqpur at the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq (son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq). A fort and Jama Masjid was also built at that time here.
However, revolt had also started even at the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
➤ Firozshah Tughlaq’s (predecessor of Muhammad bin Tughlaq) Persian inscription has been found from Bihar Sharif which was the capital of Bihar at that time.
From Patna and Gaya, some inscriptions and coins have been found.
➤ In 1398-99, the invasion by Taimur marked the end of Tughlaq dynasty in Bihar and it became the part of Sharqi rule of Jaunpur. The rule of Sharqis in Bihar extended to Buxar and Darbhanga areas. Sultan Ibrahim Shah Sharqi founded a Mosque in Darbhanga.
➤ At the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Majd-ul-Mulk started expedition against Harisimha Deva due to which he fled to the hills.
➤ Malik Ibrahim served as a General in Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s army. He was appointed as the Governor of Bihar by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Malik Ibrahim was honoured and called as ‘Malik Baya’.
➤ The tomb of Malik Ibrahim Baya (Malik Baya) is located in Bihar Sharif (on Pir Pahari hill).
➤ Contemporary to the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the Sufi Literature Malfuzat (compilation of statements) written by Sufi Saint Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri and Manaquibul-Asfiya written by Hazrat Makhdoom. Shah Firdaus gave information about the rule of Tughlaq dynasty in Bihar.
➤ In Medieval Bihar many small tribal states were emerged. Among them, Chero was important.
➤ They established their powerful state in Bhojpur, Shahabad, Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Palamu districts. They ruled for 300 years.
➤ Jagdishpur fair started at this time by Fulchand. Between 1587 to 1607 AD, Kukumchand Jharap was the head of Cheros of Bhojpur.
➤ Ujjaini and Chero had fought an important battle in 1611 AD, which was won by Ujjainis.
➤ Medini Rai was the most famous ruler of Chero dynasty.
➤ Medini Rai’s territory extended to Gaya, Dawoodnagar and Arwal. Even Ramgarh became a part of his territory.
➤ Medini Rai died at the end of 1634 AD. He was succeeded by his son Raja Pratap Rai. During his rule three Mughal invasions took place.
➤ Finally Cheros were assimilated into Mughal empire.
Bhojpur’s Ujjaini Dynasty
➤ The Ujjaini is a Rajput clan that inhabits the state of Bihar. Their ancestors Parmer Rajput kings ruled Ujjain. After settling in Bihar they were known as Ujjainiya.
➤ The Ujjainiyas eventually became the rulers of the Bhojpur region in Bihar.
➤ Bhojpur was established by Devraj, son of Bhojraj after killing Sahasbal of Chero. Devraj was called Santan Singh in Bhojpur.
➤ Several battles were fought between Ujjainiyas and Cheros.
➤ The Ujjainiya ruler ‘Gajpat’ made an alliance with Sher Shah Suri and defeated the Bengal Sultanate together. Ujjainiyas were powerful in Buxar, Jagdishpur and Dumraon and remained till British came here.
Bihar and Noohani Dynasty
➤ Noohani Dynasty was a very important dynasty in the history of Bihar. It emerged as a result of political changes at the time of Sikandar Lodhi. As Sikandar Lodhi rose to power, Governor of Jaunpur fled to Bihar. Zamindars of Tirhut and Saran were against central rule. All this led Sikandar Lodhi to invade Bihar.
➤ Sikandar Lodi defeated Hussain Shah Sharqi and appointed Dariya Khan Noohani as an administrator of Bihar, who remained an administrator of Bihar till his death in 1523. His son Bahar Khan Noohani became the administrator after his father’s death.
➤ Bahar Khan Noohani succeeded the throne in 1523 AD. He declared himself independent and took the title of Sultan Mohammad.
➤ Later on, Ibrahim Lodhi invaded him. Initially, the Delhi army won over but later on it got defeated. This defeat led the extention of Mohammad empire from Bihar to Kannauj. Sultan Mohammad after being defeated by Babur in the Battle of Ghaghar held in 1529, had accepted Babur’s authority.
➤ After death of Sultan Mohammad, his son Jalal Khan succeeded the throne. Sher Shah Suri was appointed as his advisor and protector. After the fall of Noohani rulers, Sher Shah emerged as the powerful Afghan ruler.
Bihar and Sur Dynasty
➤ During theMedieval period, Bihar saw period of glory for about 6 years during the rule of Sher Shah Suri.He became protector of minor Jalal Khan and won many battles.
➤ He was an Afghan and his real name was Farid Khan. Afghan ruler Sultan Muhammad gave him the title Sher Khan. He established the Suri Empire with its capital in Sasaram, Bihar.
➤ In 1534, Sher Shah and Mahmud Shah fought Battle of Surajgarh which was won by Sher Shah. In 1539, Humayun and Sher Shah fought Battle of Chausa. Again he defeated Humayun at Kannauj in 1540 and forced him to move out of India. He took the title of Sher Shah Sultan-e-Adil after this victory.
➤ Sher Shah made Patna as the capital of Bihar province in 1541AD. Sher Shah introduced silver coins, many land and revenue reforms and extended Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong to Kabul.
➤ Sher Shah was on the throne for only five years (1540-1545). He expanded his empire which included Punjab, Malwa, Sind, Multan and Bundelkhand. His empire expanded throughout the whole of North India except Assam, Nepal, Kashmir and Gujarat.
➤ On 13th May, 1545, Sher Shah was killed during the siege of Kalinjar fort. The tomb of Sher Shah is situated in Sasaram.
Bihar and Karrani Dynasty
➤ After the downfall of Sur dynasty, the region of Bihar was ruled by Taj Khan Karrani. He made Bihar Sharif as his capital. Sulaiman Karrani (1565-1572) and Dawood Khan Karrani were important rulers of this dynasty.
➤ Sulaiman Karrani accepted the suzerainty of the Mughal emperor Akbar but his son Daud revolted against Akbar.
➤ Akbar came to Hajipur and captured the fort of Hajipur, he defeated Daud in the battle of Rajmahal in 1576 AD after which Mughal rule was firmly established in Bihar.
Bihar and Mughal Dynasty
➤ The Mughals annexed Bihar and turned it into one of their Subas with its seat at Patna. British travellers John Marshall and Bernier visited Patna, Bhagalpur, Munger, Hazipur and mentioned about their prosperity.
➤ The struggle to annex Bihar by the Mughals starts with battle of Ghaghar in 1527 AD between Babur and Sultan Mohammad.
➤ The Noohani Dynasty came to an end in 1532 AD when Mughal emperor Humayun defeated Afghans in Doha Sarai. He attacked the Chunar Fort in 1531 AD.
Akbar and Bihar
➤ In 1574, the Mughals seized Patna from Daud Khan, who was the son of Sulaiman Khan, an Afghan chief. After the Battle of Tukaroi in 1575, Daud Khan was captured and executed.
➤ Akbar realised the importance of Bihar, thus made it a separate subah of his empire in 1576. Munim Khan was made Governor of Bihar.
➤ On 17th March, 1587, Raja Man Singh was appointed Subedar of Bihar. He defeated Bhojpur, Giddhaur and Kharagpur and made Rohtas as his capital. He renovated fortification in Rohtasgarh Fort in Sasaram.
➤ According to Abul Fazl, Man Singh administered excellently and crushed all the rebellions.
➤ In 1577 AD, Akbar made Mahesh Thakur as the administrator of Mithila. Mahesh Thakur made Rajnagar of Madhubani as his capital.
➤ Asif Khan was the last Governor of Bihar during the reign of Akbar.
Jahangir and Bihar
➤ On 3rd November, 1605, Akbar was succeeded by his son Jahangir.
➤ Soon after his accession to the throne, Jahangir replaced Asif Khan with Lala Beg, known as Beg Bahadur as the Governor of Bihar.
➤ Other governors of Bihar are Islam Khan, Afzal Khan (Son of Abul Fazl), Zafar Khan, Ibrahim Khan, Jahangir Quli, Muqarrab Khan.
➤ In 1621, Jahangir declared his son Parvez as the Governor of Bihar. He was the first Mughal Prince to become Governor of Bihar. Shahzada Khurram revolted against Jahangir and captured Patna, Rohtas, etc from Parvez. Later on Shah Jahan was defeated and driven out of Bihar.
➤ In Jahangir’s reign, Baz Bahadur (Jahangir Quli Khan) was made the Subedar of Bihar. He took immediate action and the rebels were completely defeated. Raja Sangram Singh of Kharagpur was killed in the battle of Kharagpur. Khokhra region was controlled which was highly beneficial.
➤ Mirza Rustam Safri was the last Governor of Bihar during Jahangir’s reign.
Shah Jahan and Bihar
➤ In Shah Jahan’s reign, Bihar was highly peaceful.
➤ Khan-i-Alam was appointed as the Governor of Bihar during the reign of Shah Jahan but he failed to discharge his duties efficiently and was recalled within a year. He was replaced by Mirza Safi also known as Saif Khan.
➤ Saif Khan built Shahi Idgah in Patna. He was succeeded by Abdullah Khan in 1632 AD who suppressed a revolt of the Ujjainia chief Raja Pratap.
➤ The next Governor of Bihar was Shaista Khan (1639 AD-1643 AD). The other governors are Itiqad Khan, Azam Khan and Sayeed Khan.
➤ In 1651 AD, Jafar Khan was appointed as Governor. He built Bagh-i-Jafar Khan at Patna and Dundi Bazar Mosque.
➤ Jafar Khan was succeeded by Zulfiqar Khan and then Alivardi Khan.
Aurangzeb and Bihar
➤ The first Governor during the reign of Aurangzeb was Daud Khan Quraishi. Daud Khan founded the city of Daudnagar in the Gaya district.
➤ He defeated the Cheros of Palamu and extended the empire to Chota Nagpur.
➤ Daud Khan was succeeded by Jan Nisar Khan. During his tenure, European travellers Tavernier and Bernier visited Patna.
➤ Jan Nisar Khan was also known as Lashkar Khan and was succeeded by Ibrahim Khan. His reign witnessed a severe famine in Patna. He was succeeded by Amir Khan and later by Tarbiat Khan.
➤ Aurangzeb had made his grandson Prince Azim who was known as Azimushan as Subedar of Bihar in 1702 AD. He rebuilt Patna and called it Azimabad in 1704 AD.
➤ After Aurangzeb, Bahadur Shah I (Shah Alam I) became the ruler. He made Prince Azimushan as the adminstrator of Bihar and Farrukhsiyar as the Nawab of Bengal. After Azimushan, Mughal control weakened in Bihar.
➤ Farrukhsiyar was the first Mughal who was coronated in Patna in 1713. He became the first Mughal ruler to be sworn in Patna.
➤ During the rule of Farrukhsiyar, there were four subedars appointed in Bihar i.e. Kairat Khan, Mir Jumla, Buland Khan and Khan Jaman.
➤ At the time of Mughal king Muhammad Shah (1719-1748), Fakr-ud-daula was appointed Governor of Bihar. He was the last Mughal Governor of Bihar and dismissed in 1733 by the Nawab of Bengal.
➤ During the period of Subedar of Bihar, Fakra-ud-daula ‘Court of Justice’ was built at Patna.
Economic, Religious and Social Condition of Bihar during Medieval Period
The economic, social and religious aspects of people in Bihar underwent many changes during medieval period. These are described as follows:
Economic Condition Cultivation of rice, cotton, wheat, pulses, tobacco and opium was major sources of livelihood. This period saw the rise of silk, sugar, leather and cloth industry in small scales.
Religious Condition Hinduism was the main religion. Vishnupad temple in Gaya was an important religious place. It was built in 1783 AD by Ahilya Bai Holkar.
Shaivites, a sect of Hindu religion gained greater popularity.Mithilas were worshipper of Shakti (power).
Social Condition The condition of common people, compared to the nobility and the middle class was miserable.One of the demoralising institutions of the society was slavery and it was in existence those times.
Pala Dynasty in Bihar and Bengal
Nalanda and Vikramshila Universities destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji
Bihar became part of Khilji dynasty
Invasion of Bihar by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
Bihar became part of Delhi Sultanate
Battle of Ghaghar between Babur and Sultan Mohammad of Noohani dynasty
Battle of Surajgarh between Sher Shah Suri and Mahmud Shah
Battle of Chausa between Sher Shah Suri and Humayun
Mughal Dynasty restored in Bihar
Bihar declared as Mughal Subah (province)
Birth of Tenth Sikh Guru Gobind Singh at Patna
Name of Patliputra changed to Azimabad
Maratha invasion in Bihar by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao
Bihar and Nawabs of Bengal
➤ By 1733, the Nawabs of Bengal had established their control in Bihar. Alivardi Khan was a Naib Nazim or Deputy Nawab appointed between 1734-1740. He continued till the year 1756. This period saw many invasions of the Afghans as the Mughal rule weakened. Alivardi Khan suppressed the revolts and invasions in the battle of Patna and Ranisarai.
➤ After the death of Alivardi Khan, Sirajuddaulah became the Nawab of Bihar and Bengal. The Nawabs of Bengal also allowed trade to flourish in this region. Some of the greatest melas of the Indian sub-continent, viz. Sonepur Mela, which is the biggest cattle fair in India, were allowed to continue and even flourish, inviting traders from far and near.
➤ The mid seventeenth century saw the arrival of the Marathas with Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao’s invasion in 1743 AD in Munger and Bhagalpur.
➤ The important centers of Persian education in Bihar were Patna, Bihar Sharif and Bhagalpur.
Sufism in Bihar
➤ Sufism in Bihar belonged to the Wajudia School. Sufism had reached Bihar and its neighbouring regions even before the Turkish conquest. Earlier, Sufism belonged to the Chisti and Suharawardi order of Sufism.
➤ Bihar Sharif and Saran were the notable centres of activity of Chisti Sufism. One of the greatest Sufis of the Shuttasia order was Abul Faiz Qazin Ola of Bania Basarh near Vaishali.
➤ Sufism became very popular in Bihar. Emam Taj Fakeeh, Chisti, Kadri, Suharvardi, Firdausi, Nakshbandi were different sects of Sufism popular in Bihar.
➤ Makhdoom Sharfuddin Ahmed Yahja Maneri was the most prominent Sufi Saint who was born at Maner village in Patna in July, 1264 AD. At the age of 12, he left Maner to gain knowledge in Arabic, Persian logic, philosophy and religion.
➤ He was given the title of Firdausi by Sheikh Najeebuddin Firdausi. He wrote Maktubat-i-Sadi, Maktubati-Bist-o-Hasht and Fawaed-i-Rukni. His tomb lies at Badi Dargah in Bihar Sharif, Nalanda.
Sikhism in Bihar
➤ Sikhism also had spread to Bihar in the later part of the Medieval period.
➤ Guru Nanak Dev had visited Patna in 1509, stayed at Bhagat Jaitmal’s house near Gaighat, Patna in 1509 AD and later Guru Tegh Bahadur along with his family came in 1666 AD.
➤ The 10th and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born at Patna Sahib, Patna in 1666 AD.
➤ He was installed as Sikh Guru at the age of 9 when his father Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded for not accepting to convert to Islam.
➤ He was a spiritual leader, a poet and a warrior. He prepared the Sikh warrior called Khalsa to fight against the Mughal army.
➤ He is also credited for finalising the Kartarpur Pothi into the Guru Granth Sahib.
➤ Takht Shri Harmandir Saheb, also known as Patna Saheb is one of the Five Takhts of the Sikhism.
➤ Other famous places are Gurdwara Ghai Ghat, Gurdwara Gobind Ghat, Gurdwara Guru Ka Bagh, Gurdwara Bal Leela, Gurdwara Handi Saheb, etc.
➤ After the Partition, many Sikhs have come to Patna and most of them are Nanak Panthi