Bihar GK in English

Freedom Movements in Bihar

Early Nationalism in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

➤ The early nationalism and political activities in Bihar started from the establishment of Boys’Association (popularly known as youth club) and the Saraswati Academy (1901) at Darbhanga.

➤ The Boys’Association was inaugurated on 3rd March, 1899 under chairmanship of Afak Khan.

➤ Suryadev Narayan Sharma was the founder of the Boys’Association, Kamleshwari Charan Sinha was its secretary. This Association was the centre of political activities in this region and remained active till 1920.

➤ Various parts of Bihar witnessed protests against the partition of Bengal. On 16th October, 1905, Rakhi Bandhan Divas was celebrated at Darbhanga which encouraged the youths.

➤ Youths were inspired by the ideas of the Swadeshi Movement. Surendra Nath Banerjee came to Munger in 1906 and delivered an inspiring speech which made a deep impression on the minds of the youth.

➤ The Bihari Student’s Conference established in 1906 played a significant role in the history of nationalism of Bihar.

➤ In 1908, at Sonepur fair, an important meeting was held under the presidentship of Nawab Sarfraz Hussain Khan at which Bihar Provincial Congress Committee (BPCC) was formed. The first session of the committee met at Patna in 1908 under the presidentship of Sayed Hasan Imam.

➤ In the first meeting of Bihar Provincial Congress Committee (BPCC), six delegates were selected for the annual session of Congress held at Madras in December, 1908. These delegates are Hasan Imam, Basanti Chandra, Deep Narain Singh, Syed Najmul Hoda, Parmeshwarlal and Sachchidananda Sinha.

➤ In a meeting held at Patna Library on September 25, 1909, Sachchidananda Sinha pointed out that muslims and non-muslims working together in Bihar for national ideas presented a unique example for the whole India.

➤ Even contemporary newspapers like ‘Indian Mirror’ and Bengalee praised the communal harmony prevalent in Bihar at that time.

➤ The annual session of Indian National Congres was held for the first time in Bihar in 1912 at Bankipur in Patna. It was the 28th session of Congress. RN Mudholkar was the President of this session. Mazharul Haque was the Chairman, Sachchidananda Sinha, Parmeshwarlal etc were the secretaries of this session.

➤ The demand for a separate state was being made forcefully since the partition of Bengal in 1905 by the intellectuals of Bihar.

Freedom Movements in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

Bihar played a historic role in India’s struggle for freedom which started from the Home Rule Movement. The freedom movements in Bihar are discussed below:

Bihar and Home Rule Movement

➤ The All India Home Rule League was formed in April, 1916. Two Home Rule Movements were started. One was under the leadership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and other Home Rule League was led under Annie Besant.

➤ The influence of Home Rule Movements was also felt in Bihar. A Home Rule League was established at Bankipur (Patna) with Mazhar-ul-Haque as President, on 16th December, 1916.

➤ Sarfaraz Hussain Khan and Purnendu Narain Sinha were Vice-Presidents and Chandravanshi Sahay and Baijnath Narain Singh became Secretaries. In Muzaffarpur, Home Rule League Movement was started by Janakdhari Prasad and in Saran district the role of Bajrang Sahay and Tarini Prasad Singh was important.

Bihar and Champaran Satyagraha

➤ The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was Mahatma Gandhi’s first Satyagraha in India. Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha were the events which later put Gandhi on the front seat of Indian Revolution and made Satyagraha a powerful tool. It was the first Civil Disobedience Movement.

➤ It was started with the objective to raise voice against the European planters in Bihar. The European planters had been forcing the peasants to grow indigo on 3/20 of the total land called Tinkathia system.

➤ European planters demanded high rents and illegal dues from the peasants so that they could maximise their profits before the peasant could shift to other crops.

➤ This led to worsening the conditions of the peasants. Their was massive increase in poverty and starvation as farmers could not grow good crops.

Role of Rajkumar Shukla in Champaran Satyagraha

➤ In 1916, at Lucknow session of Indian National Congress, the issue to Champaran was discussed. Rajkumar Shukla and Sant Raut invited Gandhiji to look into the problem of indigo planters as people were ready to accept his leadership and ideology of Satyagraha.

➤ After this session, Rajkumar Shukla urged Gandhiji to visit Champaran and witness the miseries of indigo planters.

➤ Raj Kumar Shukla was the resident of Murli Bhitiharwa village.

Gandhiji in Champaran

➤ Mahatma Gandhi chose Champaran to initiate his first experiment with Satyagraha.

➤ Gandhiji arrived in Champaran on 10th April, 1917 and stayed at the house of Sant Raut in Amolwa village.

➤ Gandhiji established the first ever basic school at Barharwain Lakhansen village on 13th November, 1917.

➤ On 11th April, 1917, Gandhiji met with the Minister of Bihar Planters Association in Muzaffarpur for assistance to farmers.

➤ On 15th April, 1917, as the movement gathered pace, several leaders like Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Mazhar-ul-Haque, Mahadeo Desai, Narhari Parikh and JB Kriplani joined Gandhiji.

➤ The British Government adopted various measures to suppress the movement but the participation of peasantry and non-violence ideology gave strength to the movement.

Outcomes of the Movement

➤ Seeing the mass agitation, the British Government decided to bring reforms in its administrative policies. On 10th June, 1917, Lieutenant Governor Adbert Gate constituted the Champaran Agrarian Committee to look into the matter.

➤ On 4th March, 1918, Tinkathia system was abolished, rent reduced and peasants were compensated as recommended by the committee.

➤ Champaran Agrarian Act was also passed by the committee on 1st May, 1918.

Bihar and Khilafat Movement

➤ The Khilafat Movement was started in 1919, against the adverse terms imposed on Ottoman Empire (in Turkey) by the Britishers after Turkey’s defeat in First World War.

➤ The movement was started by Ali brothers. Muslims participated in it in larger numbers. The Congress adopted this movement and it was supported by the people of Bihar.

➤ Maulana Sajjad inaugurated a Khilafat Committee at Gaya.

➤ On 16th February, 1919 in a meeting in Patna, presided by Hasan Imam, it was decided to create public opinion in favour of appropriate treatment of the Caliph by the Allied powers.

➤ On 19th March 1920 Muslims of Bihar called for a state wide Hartal. Next month, in April 1920, Maulana Shaukat Ali came to Patna, as a result the movement spread in Bihar.

➤ All the business in various places of Bihar was suspended in support of the movement. Patna, Darbhanga, Gaya, Bihar Sharif, Chhapra, Munger, Bhagalpur were major centres of the movement.

➤ On 19th October, 1919, Khilafat Diwas was celebrated in whole country.

➤ A mass meeting was held on 30th November, 1919 at Anjuman Islamia Hall in Patna under the presidentship of Maulana Shah Rashidul Haque to support this movement. The Khilafat meetings were also held in Sasaram, Champaran, Fatuha, Muzaffarpur, Kako and Sitamarhi.

➤ The prominent supporters from Bihar in Khilafat Movement were Rajendra Prasad, Muhammad Safi, Maulana Narul Hassan, etc.

➤ 19th March, 1920 was fixed for Second Khilafat Day and it was observed as a day of ‘National Mourning’. This day was also observed as a day of hartal and protest all over Bihar.

Rowlatt Agitation

➤ Gandhiji called for the nation wide protest against the Rowlatt Bill but the Rowlatt agitation was not felt much in Bihar. The members of the Bihar Satyagraha Sabha organised meetings at Town Hall in Patna in February, 1919.

➤ Meetings were also held in Muzaffarpur, Mansurganj, Munger, Chhapra and Gaya in protest of the Rowlatt Bill that aimed to curtail the civil liberties of the Indians.

➤ In districts like Patna, Munger, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Chhapra, Muzaffarpur, Champaran, processions were carried. Hartal and demonstrations were also staged.

Non-Cooperation Movements

➤ Gandhiji started Non-cooperation Movement in the backdrop of Khilafat issue, Rowlatt Act and the atrocities done at Jallianwala Bagh (13th April, 1919).

➤ The Bihar Congress in their provincial meet in August 1920, under the Presidentship of Rajendra Prasad also stressed on Non-cooperation. In this meet, the non-cooperation resolution was introduced by Dharnidhar Prasad and Shah Mohammad Zubair. Gorakh Prasad and Gulam Imam supported it.

➤ On 15th August, 1920 a Hijrat Committee was formed. Annoyed with the policies of the government, some muslims thought to migrate from India.

➤ In 1922, Gandhiji call off the Non-cooperation Movement due to the incident of Chauri-Chaura.

Events during Non-cooperation Movement in Bihar

Some of the important events happened during Non-cooperation Movement in Bihar were as follows:

➤ There was a boycott of auctions for settlement of ferries and pounds in Munger and Bhagalpur. A strike was happened at Government Press in Patna.

➤ A national college as an alternate arrangement was established with Rajendra Prasad as Principal at Patna-Gaya road.

➤ Gandhiji in December, 1920 visited Bihar and especially in Bhagalpur led the picketing of liquor shops. In Bihar ‘Tilak Memorial Committee’ was formed. ‘The search-light’ on the death of Tilak published an article ‘Bihar is Mourning’.

➤ There was a police strike in March-April, 1921 which spread to Patna, Purnia, Munger and Champaran.

➤ Gandhiji also formally inaugurated Bihar National College on 5th January, 1921 and Bihar Vidyapeeth on 6th February, 1921.

➤ Mazhar-ul-Haq on 30th September, 1921 started ‘The Motherland’ newspaper to propagate Hindu-Muslim Unity and Gandhian ideology.

➤ On 22nd December, 1921, the British Prince visited Bihar, which was opposed by the Congress. Mahendra Prasad, Dr. Rajendra Prasad’s brother returned the title of ‘Ray Sahab’ at the time of Non-cooperation Movement.

Swarajist Movement

➤ The All India Congress Session in December, 1922 was held in Gaya. The session was presided by Chittaranjan Das. This session saw two factions in Congress i.e. one advocating the entry of Legislative Council and other opposing it and were keen to follow Gandhian path.

➤ The former were led by CR Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan. The latter were led by Vallabhbhai Patel, C Rajagopalachari and MA Ansari, who came to be known as ‘No-Changers’.

➤ Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das had formed Swaraj Dal in 1923. Narayan Prasad was its first Chairman and Abdul Bari was its first Secretary.

➤ In February, 1923, a branch of Swaraj Dal was formed in Bihar under the leadership of Srikrishna Singh. It was not very effective in Bihar.

Simon Commission

➤ The Simon Commission, named after its Chairman John Simon, came to India in 1928. It was also known as the Indian Statutory Commission.

➤ All Party Meeting was held under the leadership of Anugrah Narayan Sinha that took the decision to boycott Simon Commission.

➤ On 12th December, 1928, the Commission reached Patna and on 24th December, it reached Ranchi. It was boycotted in both the places.

Bihar and Civil Disobedience Movement

➤ This was the second major national movement led under Gandhiji against the British rule. Dr Rajendra Prasad prepared the outline of Salt Satyagraha and 6th April, 1930, was chosen as date of Salt Satyagraha in Bihar.

➤ To make this satyagraha a success, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru travelled throughout Bihar from 31st March to 3rd April, 1930.

➤ The movement began from Champaran and Saran districts and later spread to Patna, Bettiah, Hajipur, Darbhanga, etc. In Patna, Salt Satyagraha was inaugurated on 16th April, 1930.

➤ As a part of the programme, emphasis on Khadi, against intoxicating drinks, refusal to pay chaukidari tax, etc were carried throughout Bihar. The movement saw large participation of women and every section of society.

➤ Swadeshi Committee was set-up in Patna in 1930 for organising such events under the leadership of Ali Imam.

➤ Sachchidananda Sinha, Hasan Imam and Sir Ali Imam were prominent leaders of this movement from Bihar.

➤ Bihpur Satyagraha was carried at the same time. Rai Bahadur Dwarkanath had resigned from Bihar Legislative Council in protest of lathi charge on Rajendra Prasad and Professor Abdul Bari. As a protest to these, prisoners of Chhapra jail also striked.

➤ Peasants’ refusal to pay chaukidari tax was very impactful at this time. Chandravati Devi and Ramsunder Singh had participated actively. Champaran, Bhojpur, Purnea, Saran andMuzaffarpur were important districts during the entire movement.

Individual Civil Disobedience

➤ In 1940, the 53rd Congress session was held in Ramgarh (present Jharkhand) under the leadership of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

➤ Gandhiji decided to launch Individual Civil Disobedience Movement where only chosen individuals will do Satyagraha.

➤ On 27th November, 1940, Shri Krishna Singh became the first individual Satyagrahi from Bihar who was followed by Anugraha Narayan Sinha. Gauri Shankar Singh did Satyagraha from Gaya and Shyam Narayan Singh from Silao.

Kisan Sabha in Bihar

➤ Inspired by the Champaran incident, Swami Vidyanand started the Kisan Sabha in Madhubani. Similar movements also started in Munger, Shahabad, Patna, Saran, Muzaffarpur etc by the farmers.

➤ A Kisan Sabha was organised by Jagannath Pathak at Hilsa on 27th October, 1920 under the presidentship of Shah Ghafoor.

➤ The Kisan Sabha was formed in Munger in 1922-23 by Shri Krishna Singh and Shah Mohammad Zubair.

➤ In 1929, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati formed the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights.

➤ Zamindars in action formed United Political Party in order to suppress peasants.

➤ In 1936, All India Kisan Sabha was formed at Lucknow. Under Rajendra Prasad, a committee was set-up to study condition of farmers.

➤ In North and Central Bihar, peasants movement was an important side effect of the independence movement. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal zamindari system instituted by Britishers. It was being led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan and others.

➤ Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankrityayan and other Hindi literary started publishing aHindi weeklyHunkar from Bihar in 1940.Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the PeasantMovement and the AgrarianMovement in Bihar.

Labour Movements

➤ Like peasants, labours organised themselves and formed labour movement. In 1937-38 many strikes were organised in all the factories running in Bihar in Rohtas Industry (Dalmianagar), Gaya Cotton Mills, Tatanagar Foundry Company, Japala Cement Works, etc.

➤ Bihar Trade Union was formed and the first session took place on 10th June, 1944 at Giridih. Labour movements in Bihar helped in the unification of people for a combined freedom struggle. From 17th to 20th June, 1947. Labour conferences were held by many organisations in Patna under the leadership of CPI.

Bihar Socialist Party

➤ In 1931, Ganga Sharan Sinha, Rambriksh Benipuri and Ramanand Mishra formed Bihar Socialist Party.

➤ Later in 1934, Jayaprakash Narayan convened a meeting in Anjuman Islamia Hall in Patna and formally inaugurated Bihar Congress Socialist Party.

➤ Acharya Narendra Dev became President of the party and Jayaprakash Narayan was made General Secretary. This party closely coordinated with Congress for welfare and organisation of peasants and workers. Later they also participated in Quit India Movement in 1942.

Quit India Movement

➤ In Bihar under the leadership of Dr Rajendra Prasad, Congress Committee was called to prepare the outline of the Quit India Movement on 31st July, 1942.

➤ On 8th August, 1942 Indian National Congress approved the proposal of Quit-India Movement. Gandhiji gave slogan Do or Die (Karo Ya Maro) during this movement. However, the government imprisoned its major leaders, Sri Narayan Singh and Sukhlal Singh.

➤ Congress was banned on 9th August, 1942 and newspapers were also banned.

Strikes were carried and national flag was unfurled on most of the buildings.

➤ On 11th August, 1942, students unfurled national flag on Patna Legislative Assembly. Collector WG Archer gave order of open fire due to which 7 students were killed.

➤ As a result of this incident, there was a complete strike in Patna on 12th August, 1942. Several meetings were held and it was decided to shut communication lines and stop government work. The British authorities took serious action against all such activities.

➤ Jayaprakash Narayan along with Ram Manohar Lohia and Aruna Asaf Ali took charge of the ongoing turmoil when all the senior leaders has been arrested. In 1943, Azad Dasta was organised under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan.

Elections in Bihar and Attainment of Independence (Bihar GK in English)

➤ The Government of India Act, 1935 had brought some constitutional remedies through which provincial autonomy in the state and dual administration in Centre was brought.

➤ Elections were held in 152 election zones in Bihar. Congress contested on 107 seats and won 98 seats.

➤ In Legislative Council election, 8 candidates were the winners. Thus, Congress got majority in both Houses.

➤ Shri Krishna Singh had refused to form government despite being in majority.

Mohammad Yunus (leader of Independent Party which was the second largest party) as a result formed government. Thus, Mohammad Yunus was the first Prime Minister of Bihar.

➤ On 20th July, 1937, Sri Krishna Singh formed Congress Cabinet. Sri Ramdayalu Singh and Professor Abdul Bari were Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Legislative Council respectively.

➤ Bihar Tenancy Amendment Act was brought which was the most important work.

This removed problems of Kashtkari bandobast. Similar other legislation was brought which really helped peasants.

➤ On 12th April, 1946, Government lifted ban on the Congress Socialist Party. The Constituent Assembly was first met on 9th December, 1946 under the presidentship of Sachchidananda Sinha.

➤ India became indepenednt on 15th August, 1947 according to Indian Independence Act and Jairamdas Daulatram was appointed as Governor of Bihar.

Bihar at the Time of Independence (Bihar GK in English)

➤ Bihar’s contribution in the independence movement has been immense with famous leaders like Swami Shahjanand Saraswati, Shaheed Baikuntha Shukla, Bibhuti Anugrah Narayan, Maulana Mazhar-ul-Haq, Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, Satyendra Narayan Sinha (Singh), Basawon Singh (Sinha), Yogendra Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Dr Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi and many others who worked for India’s independence and worked for the upliftment of the underprivileged masses.

➤ Anugrah Narayan Sinha was the leader of the first Congress ministry in Bihar. Upendra Narayan Jha ‘Azad’ and Prafulla Chaki were also active in revolutionary movement in Bihar.

More than hundred of cases were registered in different jails of Bihar in Madhepura, Darbhanga, Saharsa, etc.

Revolutionary Activities in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

Many revolutionaries also formed their party and undertook revolutionary activities in Bihar. Some :

➤ Sachindra Nath Sanyal established the Anushilan Samiti in Patna in 1913.

➤ Bankim Chandra Mitra formed the Hindu Boys Association. He was arrested in Benaras Conspiracy Case.

➤ Patna Yuvak Sangha was formed in 1927. This organisation was founded by Manindra Narayan Roy.

➤ Bihari Yuvak Sangha was formed in 1928 in Motihari.

➤ Patliputra Yuvak Sangha was formed in 1929 by Rambriksha Benipuri and Ambika Kant Singh.

➤ Monthly magazine ‘Yuvak’ was started from Patna.

➤ Political dacoity was also carried in many places.

➤ A branch of Anushilan Committee was established in Patna.

Women Freedom Fighters from Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

➤ A number of women participated in the freedom struggle from Bihar. Sarla Devi, Prabhavati Devi, Rajvanshi Devi, Radhika Devi participated in women movement organised by Kasturba Gandhi in 1919.

➤ CC Das and Urmila Das organised Charakha Samiti in Patna to show their participation in Non-Cooperation Movement and Sarla Devi encouraged school children to abolish English school.

➤ During the Civil Disobedience Movement, Shailbala Roy motivated thousands of women in Bihar to prepare salt. In Patna, women made mass funeral of foreign clothes.

➤ Ram Swarup Devi was jailed in 1931 in Bhagalpur Central Jail to arouse movements during Civil Disobedience Movement. Chandravati Devi raised her voice against Chowkidari tax.

➤ Kusum Kumari Devi organised people in Arrah to raise their voice against the capital punishment given to Bhagat Singh on 23rd March, 1931.

➤ Priyamvada Devi, Jagat Rani Devi, Janki Devi and Mahadevi Kejriwal participated in individual Satyagraha called by Mahatma Gandhi in 1940.

➤ BhagwatiDevi (sister of Dr Rajendra Prasad) organised the Charkha Samiti in 1942 during the Quit India Movement.

➤ Radhika Devi and Sunita Devi in Vaishali, used to be dressed as male and spread awareness among the people in far off places.

➤ During Quit India movement many women from Bihar were shot dead.

Prominent names among them were Sudha Sharma, Dhaturi Devi, etc.

They were shot dead in Munger.

➤ Sharda Devi and Usha Rani Mukherjee were outstanding women from Bihar who acted as a role model for the rest of the women in Bihar.

➤ Saraswati Devi became the president of Hazari Bagh District Congress Committee during the Civil Disobedience Movement. She was arrested along with Sadhana Devi for her role in the movement.

Famous People from Modern History of Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

The land of Bihar has produced several freedom fighters who gave their life to serve the motherland. The state has also produced several nationalists who played an active part in the formation of the state as well as Indian politics.

Some eminent personalities are described below:

Syed Hasan Imam

➤ He was born on 31st August, 1871 at Neora in Patna district.

➤ He was the fourth Muslim to become the President of Indian National Congress. Syed Hasan Imam was presided over a special session of INC in August, 1918 held at Bombay (Now Mumbai).

➤ Syed Hasan Imam was a Law graduate from England and started his practice in the Calcutta High Court. He was appointed as a Judge of the Calcutta High Court but later resigned from the Calcutta High Court and started his practice at Patna in March, 1916.

➤ Hasan Imam was a strong advocate of social reforms. He was the founder of ‘The Searchlight’ Newspaper.

Maulana Mazharul Haque

➤ He was born on 22nd December, 1866, in Brahmpur, Maner in Patna district in a rich zamindar family.

➤ He passed his matriculation from Patna collegiate in 1886. He went to London for studying Law. He started practice at Patna. He joined Judicial Services as Munsif, but resigned later.

➤ In 1906, he was elected as Vice Chairman of Bihar Congress Committee. He started a newspaper ‘The Motherland’.

➤ He took part in Champaran Satyagraha. He founded an ashram at Patna known as ‘Sadaquat Ashram’.

Dr Sachchidananda Sinha

➤ He was born on 10th November, 1871, in Arrah (Bhojpur). Sachchidananda Sinha began a movement for a separate province of Bihar.

➤ He participated in Home Rule League Movement. He was a member of Imperial Legislative Council from 1910 to 1920.

➤ He built the Sinha library in the year 1924. He was the first Indian to be a member of House of Lords and Privy Council. He was named as the Interim President of the Constitutional Assembly of India on 9th December, 1946.

Shri Krishna Singh

➤ He was born on 21st October, 1887, in Nawada district. He was the first Chief Minister of Bihar (1946–61). He was also known as Shri Babu and Bihar Kesari.

➤ Along with the nationalists Dr Rajendra Prasad and Dr Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Shri Babu is regarded among the Architects of Modern Bihar. He led the Dalit entry into the Baidyanath Dham temple at Deoghar, reflecting his commitment to the upliftment and social empowerment of dalits.

➤ He was the first Chief Minister in the country to abolish the Zamindari system. He underwent different terms of imprisonment for a total of about 8 years in British India. He died on 31st January, 1961.

Rajendra Prasad

➤ He was born on 3rd December, 1884 in Ziradei in Siwan district. He was the first President of the Republic of India. He was an important leader of Indian NationalMovement from Bihar.

➤ He was a great supporter ofMahatma Gandhi, was imprisoned by British authorities during the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 and the Quit India Movement of 1942.

➤ He was elected as the President of Indian National Congress during Bombay Session in 1934.

➤ He was elected as the President of Constituent Assembly on 11th December, 1946, which prepared the Constitution of India.

➤ When India became a Republic in 1950, Prasad was elected its first President by the Constituent Assembly.

➤ He was passed away on 28th February, 1963 at Patna.

Dr Anugrah Narayan Sinha

➤ He was born on 18th June, 1887. He was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian State of Bihar (1946–1957).

➤ He was also a Member of the Constituent Assembly of India, which was elected to write the Constitution of India and served in its first Parliament as an independent nation.

➤ He was elected as the Congress Party deputy leader in the State Assembly. He further got re-elected when the Congress Party won Bihar’s first general election with a massive mandate in 1952.

➤ He passed away on 5th July, 1957.

Yogendra Shukla

➤ He was born in 1896. He was an Indian nationalist. He was among the founders of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).

➤ Along with Basawon Singh, he was among the founder members of the Congress Socialist Party from Bihar.

➤ From 1932 to 1937, he was prisoned in Kalapani, as one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement in Bihar. He was a senior associate of Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Datta. He died in 1966.

Swami Sahajanand Saraswati

➤ He was born on 22nd February, 1889 at Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh). He was an ascetic, a nationalist and a peasant leader. He was an intellectual, prolific writer, social reformer and revolutionary.

➤ He had formed the All India Kisan Sabha. His area of work was Bihar and later to all parts of the country.

➤ He has set-up an Ashram at Bihta, near Patna and carried out most of his work in the later part of his life from there.

Yadunandan Sharma

➤ He was born in 1896. He was an Indian peasant leader and a nationalist from Bihar.

➤ He had started a movement for the rights of tillers against the Zamindars and Britishers known as Reora Satyagraha. He died in 1975.

Rambriksh Benipuri

➤ He was born on December 23, 1899 in Benipur (Muzafarpur).He was socialist leader, editor andHindi writer. Rambriksh Benipuri was the founder of Bihar socialist party in 1931 and congress socialist party in 1934.

➤ He was started a newspaper ‘Yuvak’ from patna, this was the mouth piece of patna yuvak Sangh (eshtalished in 1927).

Krishna Ballabh Sahay

➤ He was born on 31st December, 1898, in Patna. He was an Indian freedom fighter.

➤ He was awarded the Gaits Gold Medal from the then Governor of Bihar and Orissa, Mr. Gait for his excellence in English. His work are kept in Bihar assembly.

➤ He died on 3rd June, 1974.

Karyanand Sharma

➤ He was born in 1901 in Munger district. He was a nationalist and peasant leader.

➤ He participated actively in Non-cooperation Movement and Kisan Movement. Under Marxist influence, he became a member of the Communist Party of India. He died in 1965.

Sheel Bhadra Yajee

➤ He was born in 1906. He was an activist and a peasant leader from Bihar who was associated with Indian Independence Movement.

➤ He joined the Congress Socialist Party and got involved in the Kisan Movement. Later, he came in close touch with Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi.

➤ In 1939, he joined Bose to found the All India Forward Bloc. He was against caste prejudice. He had a firm believe in the active participation of the peasants, workers and the middle classes in the struggle for the transformation of society.

➤ Yajee authored several books such as A Glimpse of the Indian Labour Movement, Forward Bloc and its Stand, Is Socialism a Necessity to Indian and True Face of Monopolistic American Democracy, etc.

➤ He died in 1996. The Government of India issued a commemorative stamp on him on 28th January, 2001.

Jayaprakash Narayan

➤ He was a freedom fighter social reformer and political leader born on 11th October, 1902, at Sitab Diyara (Saran).

➤ He became the member of Indian National Congress in 1929 and actively took part in Civil Disobedience Movement.

➤ He formed Praja Socialist Party in 1952 and also joined Vinoba Bhave’s Bhoodan Movement.

➤ His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his nationalist friend and an eminent writer of Hindi Literature, Rambriksha Benipuri.

➤ He was popularly called JP or Lok Nayak. In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna. He was also awarded with Magsaysay Award for Public Service in 1965.

➤ The Patna airport is also named after him. Recently, the Chhapra-Delhi- Chhapra Weekly Express was renamed as ‘Loknayak Express’ in his honour.

➤ He died on 8th October, 1979.

Baikuntha Shukla

➤ He was born in 1907. He was associated with revolutionary organisations like the Hindustan Seva Dal and HSRA.

➤ An Indian nationalist and revolutionary, he was hanged for murdering Phanindra Nath Ghosh who had become a government approver which led to hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.

➤ He participated in Salt Satyagraha of 1930 at a very young age. He was arrested and trialed for killing Phanindra Ghosh. He was convicted and hanged in Gaya Central Jail on 14thMay, 1934.

Basawon Singh

➤ He was born in 1909. He was a founder member of the Congress Socialist Party in Bihar alongwith Yogendra Shukla.

➤ He was an activist in the India Independence Movement and a campaigner for the rights of the underprivileged, industrial labourers and agricultural workers.

➤ He spent more than 15 years in prisons in British India as a consequence of his support for independence and he was committed to Democratic Socialism.

➤ He died on 7th April, 1989.

➤ The Government of India issued a commemorative stamp in his name on 23rd March, 2000. There is an indoor stadium in his name at Hazipur.

Jagjivan Ram

➤ He was born on 5th April, 1908, at Chandwa near Arrah in Bhojpur. He was an Indian independence activist and politician from Bihar.

➤ He was a leader of the Dalit community and was instrumental in foundation of the All-India Depressed Classes League, an organisation dedicated to attaining equality for untouchables.

➤ During the Indo-Pak war of 1971, he was the Defence Minister. His contribution to the Green Revolution in India and modernising Indian agriculture, during his two tenures as Union Agriculture Minister are still remembered.

➤ In 1977, he left Congress and joined the Janata Party alliance. He later served as the Deputy Prime Minister of India (1977–79) and formed Congress (J) in 1981. Popularly he was known as Babuji. He died on 6th July, 1986.

Ram Narayan Sharma

➤ He was born on 31st August, 1915. He was a freedom fighter, a trade union leader and a political leader from Dhanbad. He was imprisoned for three and half years by British for Satyagraha and Mass Movement in 1941-45.

➤ He was an activist of Indian National Congress and served as a member of the 5th Lok Sabha from Bihar.

➤ He died on 11th April, 1985.

Kailashpati Mishra

➤ He was born on 5th October, 1923 in Buxar, Bihar. He was popularly called ‘Bhishma Pitamah’ of Bihar BJP. He took part in Quit India Movement in 1942.

➤ He also took part in general elections post independence and served as Finance Minister of Bihar in 1977-78. He was also known for his motivational poems.

➤ He died on 3rd November, 2012.

Satyendra Narayan Sinha

➤ He was born on 12th July 1917 at Poiwan in Aurangabad district. He was a former Chief Minister of Bihar, an Indian statesman, participant in the India Independence Movement and a leading man of JP’s ‘complete revolution’ movement during the Emergency.

➤ He was credited for the establishment of Indira Gandhi Planetarium in Patna. His autobiography is ‘Meri Yaadein, Meri Bhoolein’.

➤ He was also a seven-time Member of Parliament from the Aurangabad constituency, a three-term member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly, and a member of the Bihar Legislative Council once.

Vilayat Ali

➤ He was a leader of the Wahabi Movement from Bihar. He organised the movement in Bihar in 1826.

➤ He attacked religious corruptions and advocated a return to the simplicity of faith and society.

➤ Vilayat Ali played a lead role in uniting the Muslim against British rule. He fought with Britishers along with his followers. He died in 1852.

Devipad Choudhary

➤ He was born on 16th August, 1928, at Jamalpur village in Silhut (now in Bangladesh). He motivated Indians to join the freedom movement.

➤ He became a Martyr on 11th August, 1942, due to his active support in Patna Secretaire incident. The Miller High School was renamed as Devipad Choudhari High School to honour the martyr.

George Fernandes

➤ He was born on 3rd June, 1930 in Manglore (Karnataka), but spend his whole life in Bihar.

➤ He was a great parliamentarian and social activist. He held several ministerial port folios including railways and defence.

➤ He was the Defence Minister at the time of Kargil War in 1999.

➤ He was passed away on 29th January, 2019 at the age of 88 in New Delhi.

Timeline

Year

Event

1913

Sachindra Nath Sanyal established Anushilan Samiti in Patna.

15th April, 1917

Gandhi visited Champaran to start Satyagraha.

4th March, 1918

Tinkathiya system aboilshed.

1922

38th session of Congress held in Gaya.

12th Dec, 1928

Simon Commission reached Patna that was boycotted.

April, 1930

Salt Satyagraha began in Champaran, Saran, Patna, Bettiah, Hajipur and Darbhanga.

1935

Government of India Act separated provinces of Bihar and Odisha.

20th July, 1937

First government in Bihar under British administration with Krishna Singh as Chief Minister.

27th November, 1940

First individual Satyagraha from Bihar.

1942

Quit India Movement spread to Bihar.

1947

India attains independence and Bihar becomes a state of India.

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