Education in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)
Bihar leads in the sector of education and research from the ancient period.Nalanda, Vikramshila and Odantapuri universities are the evidence of this statement.
Darbhanga and Vaishali had also been important educational centres in Bihar.
People from various countries used to come in Bihar to study philosophy, astronomy, religious studies,mathematics and sciences in these universities.
According to Census 2011, the literacy rate in Bihar was 61.8 percent, with male literacy at 71.2 percent and female literacy at 51.5 percent. The highest literacy rate is found in Rohtas district (73.37%) and the lowest literacy rate is found in Purnea district (52.49%).
The Early Phase of Education in Bihar
➤ The traditional system of institutional education was seen to be started in medieval period in Bihar. All the classes in the society used to get education as per their interests.
➤ The medium of education was Persian but there were some institutions which used to provide education in Sanskrit language. Azimabad was the biggest centre of Persian education in Patna during this period.
➤ With the beginning of the Western Education in Bihar in the year 1835, Lord Macaulay declared that those institutions would get financial assistance from the British Government which would provide English/Western education. In this context, various schools were established in Bihar to provide English education such as in Purnea (1835), Bihar Sharif (1838) and in Bhagalpur (1840).
➤ Women education was accelerated in the state when some Bengali people established a modern girls school in the year 1866. After this, a Girl’s school was established in Patna by Chief Justice Girish Chandra Ghosh and Mackindle, Principal of Patna College.
➤ Patna College was established in 1863. This is the oldest college in Bihar.
➤ Bisheshwar Singh, a landlord of Kulharia established BN College in 1883 as a high school. Its status raised to second grade college in 1889. BNR Teacher Training College was established in the year 1909 by Sayyed Nawab Rizwi.
➤ With the establishment of Patna University on 1st October, 1917, the higher education was accelerated in the state of Bihar.
Primary and Elementary Education in Bihar
➤ Before 1976, primary schools in Bihar were under the Municipal Corporation, Municipality and notified areas in urban regions and in rural areas these schools were under the District Council of Primary Schools.
➤ Most of the elementary level schools of Bihar are under Bihar State Secondary Education Board, while inter-level colleges and schools are under Bihar Intermediate Education Council.
➤ All the examinations in Elementary Schools in the state are conducted by Bihar School Examination Board, whereas examinations of inter-level colleges are conducted by Bihar Intermediate Education Council.
➤ As per Economic Survey of 2018-19, there are three districts in the state which show the highest number of schools such as East Champaran (3486), Patna (3366) and Muzaffarpur (3359), whereas Sheohar (417), Arwal (526) and Sheikhpura (581) have least number of schools in the state.
➤ As per Economic Survey of 2018-19, there are 42,825 primary schools and 30,156 upper primary schools in Bihar.
➤ In the year 2013-14, the State Government has decided to convert elementary schools into higher secondary schools.
Some Efforts of the State Government to
Promote School Education
There are many efforts made by the State Government to promote school education in Bihar. Some of the important efforts are given below:
➤ Sankalp Abhiyan Scheme was launched to link all the children of age group 6 to 14 years with the education system in the state.
➤ Under Mukhyamantri Bihar Darshan Yojana, all the students of elementary schools get the chance to have excursion at different historical places every year.
➤ Under Free Textbooks Scheme, all the girl students of class 1st to 8th and all the Students of SC/ST classes get free textbooks every year for their studies.
➤ The State Government has provided computers in schools with the help of Bihar State Electronics Development Corporation Limited (BSEDC).
➤ Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojana was launched which aimed to reduce dropout rate and increase enrolment in schools. To achieve this aim the State Government is providing a free cycle or ` 2,500 to buy one cycle to all girl students of classes 9th and 10th who has atleast 75% attendance in schools.
➤ Under Poshak Yojana, ` 400 are provided to students studying in class 1st and 2nd, ` 500 for students of classes 3rd, 4th and 5th and ` 700 for students of classes 6th to 8th each year for purchasing school dress.
➤ Mukhyamantri Balika Poshak Yojana was renamed as Bihar Shatabdi Mukhyamantri Balika Poshak Yojana. The aim of this scheme is to provide ` 1,000 each year to all girl students of classes 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th for purchasing school dress.
➤ Mukhyamantri Balika Protsahan Yojana was launched which aimed to provide ` 10,000 to every girl student in the state who has passed secondary level examinations with first division.
➤ Under National Literacy Mission, a three-tier programme is being implemented in Bihar, which includes ‘Total Literacy Campaign’, ‘Continuous Education Programme’ and ‘Literacy Reversal Programme’. On the basis of National Literacy Mission, Chief Minister Literacy Mission is being implemented in Bihar. It aims to provide technical education to all the literate children.
➤ Kilkari Scheme was launched which aimed to provide opportunities and healthy environment to nourish the creativity of children. This scheme develops creativity and scientific skills in them and develop self-confidence and leadership abilities in them.
➤ MeenaManch had been established in the state for the women/girls empowerment.
➤ Saakshar Bharat Programme was launched initially in Begusarai, Khagaria and Bhojpur districts in Bihar in the year 2010. Later, it was launched in the whole state of Bihar in the year 2011.
➤ Hunar Project was launched for the first time by Bihar Education Project Council, the Government of Bihar in collaboration with National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Government of India in the year 2008-09.
➤ The aim of this project is to provide vocational education to all the minorities girls.
Under this project, each trained girl is provided ` 2,500 for toolkit under the tool scheme.
➤ On the basis of Netarhat Residential School (Jharkhand), Simultala Residential School has been set-up in Jamui district. It was established on 9th August, 2010.
➤ Distance Education Programme was started in Bihar in order to encourage school education in the state. To achieve this aim Bihar Board of Open Schooling and Examination (BBOSE) was set-up in February, 2011.
➤ Mukhyamantri Kanya Utthan Yojana was launched by the State Government in April, 2018. Under this scheme, the State Government will bear all the expenses of girl child education from her birth to graduation level.
➤ Bihar Student Credit Card Scheme was launched by the Bihar Government in the year 2016. Under this scheme, a loan of ` 4 lakh is provided to those poor students who have completed their + 12 level and want to continue higher studies.
Higher Education in Bihar
There are a number of graduate and post-graduate universities/colleges in Bihar e.g.
Patna University (Patna),Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar University (Muzaffarpur), Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur), etc.Major universities of Bihar are discussed below:
Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Bihar University
➤ Initially, it was known as Bihar University which was set-up on 2nd January, 1952.
In the year 1960 with the effect of Bihar University Act, this university was divided into three universities. These are Ranchi University (Ranchi, now in Jharkhand), Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur) and Bihar University (Muzaffarpur).
➤ It was again divided in the year 1962 and a new university came into existence namely, Magadh University. Its headquarters is located in Bodhgaya.
➤ It was again divided in the year 1973 and a new university was formed namely, Jai Prakash University. It is located in Chhapra (Saran district).
➤ Bihar University was renamed as BabaSaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Bihar University in the year 1992.
➤ It is the first University of Bihar, which was established on 1st October, 1917. It is the most prestigious university in Bihar. All the colleges which comes under its jurisdiction were part of the University of Calcutta.
➤ Patna University is the oldest university which was established during the British Raj.
Nalanda Open University
➤ It was established in March, 1987 in Patna by an ordinance, promulgated by the Government of Bihar. Later, Nalanda Open University Act, 1995 was passes by the Bihar Legislature, replacing the Ordinance and the University came under the authority and jurisdiction of the new Act automatically.
➤ The University is named after the famous Nalanda University of Ancient India. It is the only University in the State of Bihar meant for imparting learning exclusively through the system of distance education.
Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University
This university was set-up on 12th July, 1960 in Bhagalpur district. The university got its name after the name of a famous revolutionary, Tilka Manjhi. It is a premier institution for providing higher eduction in Bihar.
Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU)
➤ It was established in 2010. It is located in Patna. It has been established by Government of Bihar for the development and management of educational infrastructure related to technical, medical, management and allied professional education in the state.
➤ The objective of the university is to promote the professional education infrastructure to meet the national standard through well advanced course, infrastructure and quality faculty.
Other Major Universities of Bihar
Aligarh Muslim University
Bihar Agricultural University
BN Mandal University
Central University of South Bihar
Chanakya National Law University
Dr Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University
Jai Prakash University
Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sankrit University
Lalit Narayan Mithila University
Maulana Muzharul Haq Arabic and Persian University
Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University
Veer Kunwar Singh University
Technical Education in Bihar
State Board of Technical Education was set-up in Bihar on 31st May, 1955 at Patna.
Important technical institutions of Bihar are given below:
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
➤ The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) was set-up at Patna in the year 2008, by the Central Government of India.
➤ The institute is located 25 km from Patna, in Bihar. It imparts education in courses like Electrical, Mechanical and Computer Science.
➤ Among all the IITs set-up by the Central Government in the year 2008-09, IIT Patna is the first institute which started Ph.D degree course. It is also the first IIT in the whole IIT system to start a M.Tech programme in Nano Technology.
Important Colleges/Educational Centres in Bihar
Fine Arts University/College
Government College of Arts and Craft
Faculty of Fine Arts and Craft University
Bhagalpur College of Engineering
Darbhanga College of Engineering
Gaya College of Engineering
Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology
Nalanda college of Engineering
Educational Institutions for Special Groups
Bhartiya Nritya Kala Mandir
Bihar Rashtriya Bhasha Parishad
Deaf and Dumb Vidyalaya
Madarsa Islamic Shamshulhuda
Painting and Statue Art School
Patna Blind School
Xaviers Fine Safety Academy, SK Puri
Research Institute of Prakrit, Jainology and Ahimsa
Research Institutes In Bihar
Name of Institute
Rajendra Memorial Medical Research Institute
Bihar Research Institute
Dr AN Sinha Research Institute
TB Demonstration and Training Center
Central Fuel Research Institute
Krishi Anusandhan Kendra
Name of Institute
Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences
Fruit Research Institute
Darbhanga Research Institute
Litchi Research Institute
Pulses Research Centre
Important Libraries of Bihar
Name of Library
Ghatapurak Aided Library (Sachchidanand Sinha Library)
Gopal Narayan Library
Great Public Library
Gyan Niketan Library
Khudabaksh Library (The Patna Oriental Public Library)
Laxmishwar Public Library
Shri Sharda Sadan Library
Important Education Research Institutes of Bihar
Name of Institute
Bihar Hindi Sahitya Sammelan
Projects for acting publication.
Bihar Rashtra Bhasha Parishad
Formation of Research Library Publication of Parishad Magazine.
Bihar Research Society
Research in the field of archaeology coins, anthropology and philosophy projects for acting publication.
Kashi Prasad Jaiswal Research Institute
Settlement of research work in Indian history and Sanskrit.
Maithili Sahitya Parishad
Publication of old and new Maithili volumes.
Mithila Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Darbhanga
Research, learning and investigation and publication of old Sanskrit volumes.
Arabic and Persian Research Institute
Work on research project of Arabic and Persian languages.
Prakrit, Jain Shastra Research Institute
Research work in Jain religion, literature, philosophy and history.
Publicity of Lalit Kalas.
Lalit Narayan Mishra Institute of Economic and Social Changes.
Research in the field of economics, finance and management.
LN Mishra Institute of Business Management
Muzaffarpu 1973 r
Encourage the Business-management Studies.
Name of Institute
Bihar Urdu Academy
Editing of books and magazines for the development of Urdu.
Chandragupta Institute of Management
Started its courses in the year 2008 in July, along with 2 year Post Graduation Diploma
National Institute of Technology (NIT)
➤ Formerly it was known as ‘Bihar School of Engineering ’and ‘Bihar College of Engineering’. It was renamed as ‘National Institute of Technology (NIT) in the year 2004 by the Central Government. It is located at Patna.
➤ It is mainly a residential institute. It imparts education at graduation level in the courses like Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronic and Communication Engineering and Architecture. It also imparts education at post graduation level and in the courses like Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering.
Polytechnic Colleges in Bihar
Polytechnic colleges in Bihar state offer technical education and vocational training in specialized fields. These colleges aids in self-employment of the youth.
Health Scenario in Bihar
➤ Health is an important determinant of well-being. The World Health Organisation (WHO) considers health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity. Good health enhances the capabilities of a person to work and participate in economic development.
➤ For improvement in the health and nutritional status of the population, the major thrust areas should be improving the access to and utilisation of health, family welfare and nutrition services, with special attention on underprivileged segments of the population.
➤ Bihar has achieved significant economic growth over the past decade and consequently there has been some improvement in the health status of its population.
but still there are some challenges in the health sector in Bihar such as theMaternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of Bihar is one of the highest among all Indian states.
➤ Around 33% of adolescent girls and women are suffering from malnutrition and anaemia. Around 47% children in the state are malnourished and most of them are under the category of highly malnourished. Due to malnutrition problem children are highly susceptible to various physical and mental diseases.
Health Indicators of Bihar
Bihar has witnessed remarkable improvement in health indicators in recent years, which can be seen through the following points:
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The figures of CBR in Bihar are consistently higher in the year 2016 i.e. 26.8 as compared to 20.4 for India which indicates the difference of 6.4.
Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) It is one of the major indicators of the health status of a population. According to Economic Survey of 2018-19, Life Expectancy at Birth in Bihar in 2012-16 was 68.7 years. It has been 68.9 and 68.5 years for males and females, respectively.
InfantMortality Rate (IMR) IMR in Bihar has declined marginally from 42 in 2013 to 38 in 2016.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Bihar has recorded a consistent decline in TFR from 3.4 children in 2013 to 3.3 children per women in 2016, which is a drop of 0.1 children per women.
ChildMortality Rate (CMR) The CMR has also declined in Bihar from 11 in 2013 to 10 in 2016.
Health Infrastructure in Bihar
➤ The public healthcare system in Bihar is comprised of three levels such as primary, secondary and tertiary.
➤ The Primary Health Centres (PHC), Sub-Centres and Additional Primary Health Centres (APHC) constitute the primary level of health infrastructure.
➤ The secondary level of health infrastructure constitutes district-level hospitals, sub-divisional hospitals, referral hospitals and Community Health Centres (CHC) at block level.
➤ The tertiary level of health infrastructure consitutes specialised intensive care units, advanced diagnostic support services and specialised medical personnels.
➤ As per Economic Survey of 2018-19, there are 37 district hospitals, 70 referral hospitals, 55 sub-divisional hospitals (SDH), 533 PHC, 9949 sub-centres and 1379 APHCs in 2018.
➤ As per Economic Survey of 2018-19 in terms of health institutions per ten lakh population as on September, 2018 the best 3 districts were Jamui (1523), Sheikhpura (1512) and Sheohar (1416).
The State Government has taken some major steps to reform the health condition in Bihar which :
➤ It was decided to prepare, ‘National Rural Health Mission’ in the year of 2012-13, which was started in 10 districts of Bihar such as Nalanda, Jehanabad, Arwal, Araria, West Champaran, Sheikhpura, Saharsa, Darbhanga, Purnea and Rohtas.
➤ A number of health and nutrition related schemes are being implemented in the state under an agreement between Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the State of Bihar. Many vaccination programmes are being implemented in Bihar to control the diseases related to children.
Health Related Schemes and Programmes in Bihar
Some of the important health related schemes and programmes in Bihar :
➤ The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) also known as ‘SABLA’ was launched in November 2010, as a comprehensive intervention for adolescent girls in the age group of 11-18 years with a special focus on out-of-school girls. It was launched in 12 districts of Bihar. It came as a replacement for Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG) and Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY).
➤ In the year 2015, Bihar has been declared as ‘maternal and neonatal tetanus free state’ in India by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
➤ As per a survey it is seen that every third woman is undernourished and every second woman is anaemic in Bihar. To address this issue, Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) was launched by the Central Government.
This scheme has been covered all the districts of Bihar with effect from January 2017. The aim of this scheme is provide ` 5,000/- to registered pregnant women in three installments on fulfilling certain conditions for each installment.
➤ Nayee Pidhi Swasthya Guarantee Karyakram (NPSGK) is the integrated programme for the children of the age groups of 0-3, 3-6 and 6-14 years. It also covers adolescent girls of age group of 11 to 18 years. Suman Kumar from primary school Masaurhi was the first student who got health card.
➤ Lok Swasthya Abhiyan was started on 2nd October, 2011 under the ‘Swasth Bihar Muheem’.
Medical Colleges in Bihar
Year of Establishment
Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital
Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital
Darbhanga Medical College and Hospital
Government Medical College
Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital
Nalanda Medical College Hospital
Patna Dental College
Patna Medical College and Hospital
Sri Krishna Medical College and Hospital
Vardhman Institute of Medical Sciences
Ayurvedic Colleges in Bihar
Rajkiya Ayurvedic College and Hospital
Government Tibbi College and Hospital
Shri Yatindra Narayan Ashtang Government Ayurvedic College
Rajkiya Ayodhya Shivkumari Ayurved Mahavidyalaya
Veterinary Colleges in Bihar
Bihar Veterinary College
Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry