Bihar GK in English

Agriculture And Animal Husbandry of Bihar

Agricultural sector in Bihar has two main characteristics, they are: i. 74% of workforce in Bihar depend on agricultural and allied activities.

ii. The rich natural resources of the Gangetic plains offers opportunities for high agro-productivity.

➤ As per Economic Survey Report 2018-19, agricultural sector contibutes about 20% to the State Gross Domestic Product (SGDP).

➤ Bihar has around 1.61 crore landholdings and their average size is 0.39 hectare.

➤ Bihar produces about 6.6% food grains of India and agricultural practice is done in the state in less than 60% area.

➤ There are ten districts in Bihar which have net sown area less than 50% of their total geographical area. These are Patna (49.9%), Nawada (47.2%), Araria (44.7%), Jehanabad (44.6%), Kaimur (42.6%), Banka (37.5%), Gaya (37.4%), Lakhisarai (34.4%), Munger (32.4%) and Jamui (27.4%) districts.

➤ There are seven districts in Bihar that have net sown area higher than 70%. These districts are valuable agrarian tracts of Bihar such as Buxar (86.8%), Nalanda (77.1%), Madhepura (74.4%), Bhojpur (72.4%), Siwan (73%), Muzaffarpur (72%) and Gopalganj (71.2%).

➤ The Bihar Tenancy Laws (Amendment) Act was implemented in the state in 1963, but still sharecroppers are bound to give 50% crops to the landowners, although this share should be 25% as per the law system.

➤ In Bihar, Land Reforms Act came into existence in 1950, Bhoodan Yagna Act in 1954, Consolidation of Holding and Prevention of Fragmentation Act in 1956 and Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling and Acquisition of Surplus Land) Act in 1961.

➤ The North Bihar Plains has more agricultural land as compared to other states, as it receives high rainfall and has alluvial plains which was formed by rivers like Ganga, Gandak, Kosi and other rivers. This region is important for its agricultural practices.

➤ In contrast, the plateau region of Southern Bihar has hills and rugged topography which became constraints for agricultural development here.

➤ Due to the Son Canal irrigation project, the agricultural land has been extended in the South-West Bihar regions.

Land Use Pattern in Bihar 2016-17

Land Use

Area (in thousand hectares) (%)

Barren and unculturable land

431.72 (4.61)

Cropping intensity

1.45

Culturable waste

44.41 (0.47)

Current fallow

868.01 (9.27)

Fallow land (excl. current fallow)

119.08 (1.27)

Forests

621.64 (6.64)

Geographical Area

9359.57 (100)

Gross sown area

7654.36

Land Area

1366.15 (14.6)

Land put to non-agricultural use

1718.59 (18.36)

Land under tree crops

248.05 (2.65)

Net sown area

5292.93 (56.55)

Permanent pastures

15.14 (0.16)

Total unculturable land (1 to 8)

4066.64 (43.45)

Water Area

352.44 (3.77)

Source : Economic Survey Report 2018-19

Agro Climatic Zones in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

There are three agro-climatic zones in Bihar which are divided on the basis of soil characteristics, geographical remains, rainfall and temperature.

North-East Alluvial Plain

➤ This zone is located in the North-East plains. The region has sandy to silty loam soils which are light to medium textured and slightly acidic in nature.

➤ This zone receives 1382 mm average rainfall. It has about 44% land under irrigation.

➤ Maize, jute and pineapple are extensively grown here.

North-West Alluvial Plain

➤ This North-West zone is extended from Terai region of Himalayas to the Plains of Ganges.

➤ It is the most fertile land of Bihar. Uttar Pradesh state lies to theWest of this zone.

➤ It has about 42% land under irrigation. It is a flood prone region.

➤ The zone receives 1,235 mm average rainfall.

➤ Rice, wheat, maize, potato, sugarcane, mango, litchi are major crops of this region.

South Bihar Alluvial Plain

➤ It is located in the Southern Plains. It has alluvial to sandy loam, clayey loam and clay soils. It receives 1,102 mm average annual rainfall.

➤ This zone is divided into two parts such as South-East alluvial plain and South-West alluvial plain.

➤ The maximum irrigation facilities has been developed here.

➤ It has about 75% land under irrigation.

➤ Rice, wheat, potato, gram, mango, guava, etc. crops are extensively grown here.

Agricultural Regions in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

There are four agricultural regions in Bihar which are divided by the agricultural scientists on the basis of crop variations. These :

Four Crops Regions These are the regions where four crops are extensively grown in a combination. In Bhagalpur district, rice is the major crop and along with it wheat, maize and khesari crops are grown.

Three Crops Regions These are the regions where three crops are extensively grown in a combination. In these regions, any two crops are grown along with rice. For example, jute, khesari and wheat.

Two Crops Regions These are the regions where two crops are majorly grown in a combination. For example, rice-maize, rice-wheat, rice-jute, etc. Purnea district comes in this category.

One Crop Regions These are the regions where only one crop, i.e. rice, is grown extensively.Madhubani district comes under this region.

Crop Seasons in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

There are three crop seasons in Bihar which :

Rabi Crop Season

➤ These crops are sown in October-November and harvested in March-April. The important Rabi crops are wheat, grams, barley, rapeseed and mustard.

➤ Rabi crops are largely unirrigated.

The lowest temperature makes their growth possible even in the case of lower soil moisture.

Kharif Crop Season

➤ It is the characteristic of the Northern Bihar plain regions of Bihar. It covers districts of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Purnea, Saharsa, Madhepura, Sitamarhi Supaul, Kishanganj, Samastipur and Katihar.

➤ Important Kharif crops are rice, ragi, millet, maize, jowar, bajra, cotton and groundnut.

➤ Finger millet (Ragi) is grown extensively in the districts of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Saharsa, Samastipur, Sitamarhi, etc.

➤ Diara Land of Ganga and regions of Kosi river extensively cultivate maize crop.

➤ Kharif crops are sown in May-June and harvested in October-November. Kharif crops need less irrigation.

Kharif crop season is divided into two sub-categories such as:

Aghani Crop Season

➤ This season includes those crops which are sown during monsoon season of July-August and harvested during November-December.

➤ It is a dominating crop season throughout Bihar.

➤ Rice is the dominant crop in this season. Important rice producers in the state are Purnea,Madhubani, Darbhanga, Sitamarhi, Saharsa and Rohtas.

Bhadai Crop Season

➤ It includes those crops which need less time to be grown. For example, maize, jowar, paddy, bajra, millet and oilseeds.

Some annual crops are also grown in this season e.g. jute and sugarcane.

➤ These crops are sown in May-June and harvested in August-September.

Zaid Crop Season

➤ These crops are grown in the month fromMarch to June. These crops are grown in well-irrigated areas or in wetlands.

➤ Green vegetables have important place in these crops. Special quality of rice and maize crops are now grown in this season in well-irrigated lands.

Main Crops of Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

Important crops of Bihar :

Wheat

➤ After rice, wheat is the second most important cereal. It is a Rabi crop sown in November-December and harvested in March-April. The best suited soil is sandy loam soil having capacity to retain moisture.

➤ It needs less rainfall and temperate climate. It covers about 29% of the total cultivable land.

➤ Bihar has 6th place in the production of wheat in India after Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

➤ The leading wheat producers are Rohtas, East Champaran and Buxar districts.

➤ The main wheat producing region is limited to irrigated plain areas of the state.

➤ Important varieties of wheat in the state are C-306, K-9107, HD-2824, etc.

Rice (Paddy)

➤ Rice is the main cereal crop of people of Bihar. It is highly dependent on monsoon rains. It requires high temperature, fertile soil and more than 125 cm of rainfall.

➤ It covers 45% of the total cultivable land. Rice is grown over the largest area of Bihar.

➤ The leading rice producers are Rohtas, Aurangabad and Banka.

➤ Bihar has 6th place in the production of rice in India after West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

➤ Bihar has been honoured by Krishi Karman Award for the production of rice in the year 2013.

➤ Important variety of rice are Saket, Prabhat, Sita, Kanak, Swarna Sab-I and so on.

On the basis of cropping season there are three types of rice which are grown in Bihar:

Garama Paddy It covers 3% area of Bihar. It needs well irrigation sources.

Aghani Rice (Paddy) Aghani paddy is grown on more than 80% area of the total rice producing region. It is because of the implanted method of rice cultivation. It is mainly practiced in the Gandak-Kosi Doab-region.

Boro Paddy It is grown on less than 2% area of rice producing region. It is mainly grown in Purnia, East andWest Champaran districts. It needs well irrigation sources.

Maize

➤ Maize is the third important crop after rice and wheat. It is a Kharif crop which needs light and clayey soils.

➤ It includes South-West regions of Burhi Gandak, Saran, Gopalganj, Siwan, Vaishali, Samastipur, East and West Champaran, Saharsa and Supaul.

➤ The leading maize producers are Katihar, Khagaria and Samastipur districts.

➤ Bihar has been honoured by ‘Krishi Karaman Award’ for the production of maize in the year 2016.

Barley

➤ It is the oldest agricultural crop of Bihar. It is a Rabi crop sown in October-November.

➤ The favourable area of wheat cultivation is also good for barley cultivation.

However its low productivity has shrunk its area of production and area is being diverted to more wheat production.

➤ Barley is grown in less rainfall region and warm climates. It is more nutritious than wheat. It is grown as a mixed crop.

➤ Its leading producers are East Champaran and West Champaran district. Bihar is the 8th largest producer of barley in India.

➤ Important varieties of barley are K-125, Ratna, Jyoti, Azad, etc.

Important Cash Crops

Crops grown for trading purpose are known as Cash Crops. Important cash crops in Bihar are sugarcane, tobacco, potato, jute, tea, chilly,mesta, etc. These are given below:

Tobacco

➤ Bihar is the third largest producer of tobacco in India after Andhra Pradesh and Assam. It is grown in the areas from Gandak river to the Eastern margin of Bihar.

➤ Important tobacco producing districts are Vaishali, Sitamarhi, Samastipur, Begusarai, Purnea, etc. An important type of foreign tobacco is grown in Purnea district.

Sugarcane

➤ It is an important cash crop in Bihar. It is used in sugar industry. Sugarcane is largely grown in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India.

➤ It is grown in flood free zone in the Northern Bihar, where lime based alluvial soil is good for its production.

The flood prone region of Kosi is not suitable for its cultivation.

➤ Sugarcane is grown in Kharif season. The most important region for its production is the North-East part of Bagmati river.

➤ Important sugarcane producing districts are Patna, Madhepura, Sitamarhi, West Champaran, East Champaran, Gopalganj, Siwan, Saran, Vaishali, Samastipur, Kaimur, Rohtas, Gaya and Nawada.

Potato

➤ It is an important cash crop of Bihar.

It is extensively produced more than other Vegetable.

➤ It is grown almost in every district of Bihar. It is used as an important vegetable.

➤ It is grown in loam and clayey loam and sandy soils. Nalanda district is the largest producer of potato.

➤ Its important varieties are Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Sutlej, Kufri Badshah, Rajendra Potato-3, etc.

Tea

➤ It is majorly grown in Kishanganj disrtict in Bihar. Kishanganj has 11 large tea plantations and 150 small tea plantations. These plantations receive grants from the Tea-Board of Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

Jute

➤ It is an indigenous plant of India. It is an important fibre crop which is used to make carpet, sacks, ropes, fabrics, etc.

➤ Its cultivation is done in humid regions of Bihar. It needs high moisture, high temperature, fertile alluvial soil and light rains (112 mm).

➤ It is grown mainly on natural brinks and it needs fresh water reservoir for its wash.

➤ It is mainly produced in Purnea, Kishanganj, Katihar, Saharsa, Madhepura and Supaul districts.

➤ Bihar is the second largest producer of Jute in India after West Bengal.

➤ Purnia is the largest producer of Jute in Bihar. Other producers are West Champaran, East Champaran, Madhubani and Darbhanga districts.

Chilly

➤ It is a Aghani crop but is grown throughout the year. It requires alluvial soil.

➤ It is grown in almost every district of Bihar plains but Samastipur, Darbhanga, Vaishali and Begusarai are important producers of chilly.

➤ Other producers are West Champaran, East Champaran, Madhubani, Muzaffarpur, etc.

Mesta

➤ It requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and fertile land. Bihar plain produces abundant mesta. It is grown in Purnea, Saharsa, East Champaran, Saran, Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga districts.

Major Pulses Crops

Important pulses of Bihar :

Arhar

➤ It is produced in less fertile soil. It is sown with Kharif and harvested with Rabi crops.

➤ This crop does not need irrigation and fertilisers.

➤ It is produced in all districts of Bihar but Gopalganj, Darbhanga, East Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Sitamarhi are chief producers in the state.

Gram

➤ It has the important place among Rabi pulses crop in Bihar. It is the second most important Rabi crop after wheat.

Kewal and alluvial soils are good for this crop.

➤ It is mainly grown in Rohtas, Kaimur, Bhojpur, Nalanda, Munger, Bhagalpur, Patna, etc.

➤ Important varieties of gram are Pusa-256, Rajendra Chana, BR-72, etc.

Khesari (Goass pea)

➤ It is the less important crop in pulses but is the important pulses crops in terms of productions in Bihar.

➤ Its important producing regions are Diara land of Ganga, Tal region, Jalla region and Kosi river basin.

Ragi (Madua)

➤ It is an important coarse grain. It is a Bhadai crop, which need less water to grow.

➤ It is grown in sandy soil. After harvesting ragi (Madua), rice can be sown.

➤ It is mainly grown in Saharsa, Supaul, Madhepura, Darbhanga, Samastipur and Vaishali district. Other important producers are Gopalganj, Siwan and Saran districts.

Green Gram (Moong)

➤ It is the important crop of Bihar plains. It is sown after the harvesting of wheat and harvested before the sowing of rice.

➤ Leading producers of moong are Munger, Sheikhpura, Bhagalpur, Saharsa, Supaul, Purnea, etc.

Masoor

➤ It is an important pulses crop in Bihar. It is grown in Rabi season.

➤ Patna is the chief producer of masoor.

Other important producers are Nalanda, Gaya, Jehanabad, Munger, Aurangabad, etc.

Major Oilseeds

These are both food as well as cash crops is Bihar. These include linseed, sesame, mustard, rapeseed and castor seed. Castor seed is a non-food oil seed which is an important cash crop. Important oilseeds :

Rapeseed and Mustard

➤ These have important place in oilseeds in Bihar. Its oil is largely used as edible oil in Bihar.

➤ It is grown in each and every district in Bihar but majorly grown in plain regions.

➤ Mustard is grown in Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and Patna districts. The highest productivity per hactare is done in Purnea district.

Linseed (Tisi)

➤ It is grown in deep and moist clayey soil.

It is mainly grown in Patna, Tirhut and Bhagalpur divisions.

➤ Saran and Gaya districts are the major producers of linseed. The highest productivity per hectare is done in Darbhanga district.

Sesame Seeds

➤ It is an important oilseed in Bihar.

It is used as an edible product and also in cosmetic products.

➤ Bihar grows both black and white sesame seeds. Its highest production is done in Supaul district. Other producers are Gaya, East Champaran and Buxar districts.

Castor Seed

➤ It is used as a fuel, smoothening and in soap industry. It is grown in almost every district of Bihar.

➤ It is grown on less fertile and rough land. Its major producers are Bhagalpur, Munger, Patna, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Purnea and Saran districts.

Animal Husbandry in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

According to the Livestock Census 2012, the total livestock population in Bihar is 329.39 lakh. The livestock population includes cow, buffalo, horse, ponnies, sheep, bulls, fish, donkey and poultry.

Livestock and Dairy Farming in Bihar

➤ The Livestock in the state is used for various purposes, like for milk and meat production, for agricultural practices like draught animals, (for transport, tillage, irrigation purposes), etc.

➤ The districts of Patna, Begusarai and Muzaffarpur are important dairy centres in the state.

➤ About 35% rural families have their own livestock. According to Economic Survey 2018-19, the contribution of livestock sector to states GSDP is 5.3% in 2017-18.

➤ The major source of milk production in the state comes from cows which accounted for nearly 58.9% of the total milk production, followed by buffaloes (38.7%) and goats (2.4%).

➤ The districts of Samastipur, Patna and Begusarai share a higher proportion of milk production from cows.

➤ Araria, East Champaran and Muzaffarpur districts have a higher share in milk production from goats.

➤ For the development of animal husbandry in Bihar, the State Government has established the Livestock Development Agency.

Poultry Farming

➤ For the production of meat and eggs, poultry farming has been developed in the state. Poultry farming is mainly done in Kishanganj, Katihar, Muzaffarpur and Araria districts.

➤ Bihar has more than 2000 poultry farming centres, but there are many obstacles in the path of its development.

For example, expensive medicines, financial cruncls, lack of proper training, lack of power, etc.

➤ There are four poultry breeding farms in the state such as in Patna, Muzaffarpur, Purnea and Kishanganj districts.

Fisheries

➤ Madhubani, East Champaran and Darbhanga are the leading producers of fish. Important fish varieties in the state are Rohu, Katla, Bhakhur andMagur.

➤ According to Economic Survey 2018-19, the contribution of fisheries to state’s GSDP is 1.53%.

➤ Since 1975, Bihar Government is working for the development of fisheries in the state by adopting fish farming techniques and producing eggs of fishes.

➤ Bihar has 121 Government fish seed farms and 10 private hatcheries which are in operation to meet the growing demand for fish seeds.

Important Efforts of State Government in the field of Animal Husbandry

➤ The State Government has several schemes like medical treatment of animals, vaccination, sterilisation, artificial insemination and distribution of fodder seeds for the growth of the animal husbandry sector.

➤ In the state, the artificial insemination protocol on the basis of Bihar Animal Breeding Policy 2011, is implemented.

➤ For the growth of livestock in the state, every year Sonepur Animal Fair (the biggest animal fair in the world) is organised in Bihar.

➤ The state run Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (COMFED) is playing a pivotal role in the growth of dairy industry in the state.

➤ Animal Breed Improvement scheme is being implemented in the state under Dairy Development Programme by the Animal Husbandry Department of Bihar. It aims to improve the breed of milch animals in the state.

➤ The State Government has provided subsidy for the establishment of fish feed mills, construction of fish seed hatchery, renovations of ponds and distribution of vehicles for fish marketing.

Horticulture in Bihar (Bihar GK in English)

On the basis of favourable agro-climatic conditions, different types of vegetable and fruits are grown in the state.

Production of Vegetable

➤ Important vegetables grown in Bihar are potato, tomato, onion and cabbage.

➤ Potato is the largest growing vegetable in Bihar. Important potato producers are Nalanda, Patna and Vaishali.

➤ Onion is largely grown in Nalanda, Katihar and Muzaffarpur districts while main cabbage producer districts of Bihar are Vaishali, Nalanda and Muzaffarpur.

Production of Fruits

➤ The highest share in acreage among the fruits is seen in mango which accounted for 49.4% of total area in 2017-18. In case of production, the share of bananas was 36.7% of total fruit production in 2017-18.

➤ Bihar is world famous for its ‘Shahi’ Litchi from Muzaffarpur and Maldah variety of mangoes.

➤ Bihar’s Shahi Litchi has got the Geographical Indication (GI) tag in October, 2018.

➤ Bihar produces 40% of the litchi grown in India. Besides litchi, other important fruits are mango, guava, banana, pineapple, papaya, watermelon, amla and muskmelon.

➤ The leading producer of mango is Darbhanga, leading producer of banana and litchi is Muzaffarpur and of gauava is Nalanda district.

Initiatives for Horticulture Development

➤ Towards increasing production of horticultural crops in the state, Agricultural Road Map-III has laid out programmes to develop organic cultivation and marketing of fruits and vegetables.

➤ The establishment of the Tissue Culture laboratory of banana cultivation under Bihar Agricultural University at Sabour has promoted higher banana production is the state.

➤ In order to increase mushroom productions towards meeting the demand for medicinal mushrooms, 7 mushroom spawn units have been established in Bihar.

➤ Bihar is one of the major producers of Makhana (foxnut) in the country (approx 90%) Many efforts are being made to develop new Makhana varieties given their nutritional properties.

➤ In order to boost horticulture development in the state on a larger scale, the National Horticulture Mission is being implemented in 23 district and Chief Minister’s Horticulture Mission is being implemented in remaining 15 districts of the state.

➤ Litchi Suraksha Abhiyan has been launched in Bihar in order to increase the production of litchi, enhance its shelf life and preserving its nutritive value.

Organic Farming

Organic farming is environment friendly and free of health hazards. The promotion of organic farming is a part of the Agricultural Road Map-III in Bihar. Around 270 groups of farmers have been organised in Bihar where 2 villages of each district have been declared as ‘Organic Village’. Kothia village of Samastipur district is the first organic village in Bihar. Bihar has become the first state in the country to provide grants for the procluction of vermicompost. The establishment of organic corridor is the part of Agricultural Road Map III and it envisaged to cover around 25,000 acres during the period of 2017-22.

Agriculture Development Schemes in Bihar

Many shcemes related to agricultural development in the state have been stated in by the Department of Agriculture,Government of Bihar.

Some of the important schemes/programmes :

Scheme of Seed Distribution on Subsidy Under this scheme, in order to provide advanced quality of new seeds to all villages, the State Government has allowed subsidy on the paddy and wheat seeds which are of less than 10 years period.

ChiefMinister’s Crash Seed Programme The aim of this scheme is to provide advanced varieties of seeds to farmers of all revenue villages of the state and encourage them to produce good varieties of seeds. Under this scheme, farmers are being trained at the block level. This programme is also known as Mukhyamantri Tivra Beej Vistar Yojana.

Integrated Seed Village Programme For this scheme,Nalanda, Buxar, Rohtas, Kaimur, Bhojpur, Aurangabad, Katihar and Purnia districts have been marked. Under this scheme, 60% subsidy is provided on the certified seeds of pulses and oilseeds and 50% subsidy is provided on other crop seeds.

Sowing of Wheat by Zero Tillage Technology Under this Scheme, the State Government encourage the farmers to cultivate wheat saplings after harvesting of paddy crop. This saves 20-25 days at the time of sowing of wheat.

Scheme of Strengthening Bihar State Seed Corporation In order to increase the storage capacity in various places, construction of seed godown under Bihar State Seed Corporation and construction of additional processing in Kudra and Sherghati is being done under the Bharat Nirman Yojana.

Soil, Seed and Fertilizer Laboratory Upgradation Programme The objective of this programme is to test soils, seeds and fertilizers by the permanent and mobile laboratories. Under this scheme, the State Government provides training to seed testing personnel of these laboratiories.

Diara Development Scheme This scheme is being implemented in 25 districts of Bihar such as Buxar, Bhojpur, Patna, Sitamarhi,Mazaffarpur, East Champaran,West Champaran, Khagaria, Saharsa, Supaul, Katihar, Madhepura, Purnea, Bhagalpur, Munger, Lakhisarai, Samastipur, Vaishali,Darbhanga,Madhubani, Begusarai, Siwan,Gopalganj, Sheohar and Saran for the development of Diara areas in the state.Under this scheme special grants are being given in these regions. Compensation is given on crop failure.

AgriculturalMechanisation Programme Scheme In the agricultural mechanisation scheme, the use of mechanisation software is being used for on-line arrangement ranging from application receipt to machine distribution.

Distribution Programme ofMetal Kothila on Subsidised Rate Under this programme for the storage of food grains, the State Government provides Metal Kothila at subsidised rate. This scheme is included under the Food Storage Planning Restoration ofMarket Committee Under this Scheme, 16 agricultural production market committees will be restored. This scheme is operated by sub-division level officers.

Scheme. Seed Treatment Scheme Treatment of seed is essential for the purpose of promoting the conservation of integrated post management. In order to adopt the technique of treatment of seeds, farmers will be given 50% of the value of the seed treatment on a maximum of ` 150 per hectare.

Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds andMaize This scheme was introduced by the Central Government in the year 1986 in order to increase the quality production and productivity of oilseeds and maize in the selected areas of Bihar.

Kisan Credit Card Scheme This scheme was launched in the year 1998-99. This scheme enables access of farmers to a maximum credit of ` 50,000 to meet the input related expenses through banks, under a single window system.

Integrated PestManagement Programme This scheme was launched by the Central Government in the year 1988. It aims to save environment and agricultural products from harmful insects and pests.

National Agriculture Development Scheme This scheme was launched in the year 2007-08 by the Central Government. The aim of this scheme is to ensure more holistic and integrated development of agriculture and allied sectors in the 11th plan and ensure 4% annual growth rate in the agriculture sector.

Seed Village Scheme This scheme was started in the year 2010-11 in the state, where 4 villages of each block were included in the production of paddy and wheat seeds. Under this scheme, seeds of selected crops are provided to selected farmers.

National Food SecurityMission It is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. This scheme was intoduced in the state of Bihar in 11th Five year Plan in the year 2007-08. The state included only 18 districts which have high productivity of wheat, rice and pulses.

PaddyMinikit Scheme Under this centrally sponsored scheme,minikit seed is made available for the seleted farmers at 80% subsidy. Under this scheme, the developed variety seeds of 5 to 10 year are distributed in the selected areas of the state.

Development of Community Paddy Nurseries Under this state plan, arrangement have been made to provide grants for farmers for community nursery and paddy development.

Taal Development Scheme For the consolidated management of insect diseases in Taal areas, to increase the production of crops without harming the environment and make the farmers self reliant to solve the problems related to crops,many agricultural field schools are being operated in the state.

Construction of E-Kisan Bhawan For the development of agriculture and welfare of farmers, the Department of Agriculture is constructing E-Kisan Bhawan in all the 534 blocks in the state.

 

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